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A G protein alpha mutation confers prolificacy potential in maize.

Urano D, Jackson D, Jones AM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: The ct2 mutant partially compensated for a reduced shoot height by increased total leaf number, and had far more ears, even in the presence of pollination signals.The maize heterotrimeric G protein complex is important in some plastic developmental traits in maize.In particular, the maize Gα subunit is required to dampen the overproduction of female inflorescences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Coker Hall, NC 27599-3280, USA.

No MeSH data available.


The ct2 Gα- mutant forms multiple ears at a single node. (A) The main stalk of unpollinated wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 mutant. Red arrowheads point to apical ears with silks. Yellow arrowheads indicate axillary ears formed on the uppermost (top) ear shank. (B, C) Number of ears formed on the uppermost ear shank or on all nodes having ears. Data were collected from 15-week-old B73 and ct2 plants. Graphs in (B) and (C) present raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Represents significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by the Student’s t test. n.s. signifies no significant difference at the P value of 0.05. n.a. Represents not statistically analysed, because all the values of the B73 or ct2 group were identical. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online. See Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online for other images for wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 plants.
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Figure 2: The ct2 Gα- mutant forms multiple ears at a single node. (A) The main stalk of unpollinated wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 mutant. Red arrowheads point to apical ears with silks. Yellow arrowheads indicate axillary ears formed on the uppermost (top) ear shank. (B, C) Number of ears formed on the uppermost ear shank or on all nodes having ears. Data were collected from 15-week-old B73 and ct2 plants. Graphs in (B) and (C) present raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Represents significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by the Student’s t test. n.s. signifies no significant difference at the P value of 0.05. n.a. Represents not statistically analysed, because all the values of the B73 or ct2 group were identical. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online. See Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online for other images for wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 plants.

Mentions: In addition to the dwarf defect, we observed ct2 plants having multiple ear shoots on a single shank (Fig. 2; see Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online). The axillary ear shoots were smaller and had poor kernel fill. Supplementary Fig. S2A, B at JXB online show representative stalks of B73 and ct2 at the 14th week. Both B73 and ct2 plants usually exhibited one or two visible ear shanks, each with a single ear at the apex, when the uppermost ear was pollinated. However, about 15% of ct2 plants, while none of the B73 plants, formed several axillary ear shoots on the uppermost shank (Fig. 2B). Because poor kernel fill is associated with the multiple ear formation trait (McClelland and Janssen, 1929), pollination was inhibited and axillary ear formation was analysed (Fig. 2A; see Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online). While most B73 plants still exhibited a single ear on a shank under the non-pollinated condition, the uppermost ear node of ct2 formed multiple visible axillary ears, as indicated by arrowheads (Fig. 2A). Figure 2B and Supplementary Fig. S2C, D at JXB online provide the quantitation of this phenotype. Therefore, ct2 mutants, when unpollinated, had more visibly-developed ears per plant (B73, mean 4.1 ears; ct2, 7.8 ears), and on the uppermost node of the main stalk (B73, mean 1.3 ears; ct2, 3.9 ears). Inhibition of pollination similarly promoted development of ear shanks at lower nodes on the main stalk (Fig. 2C), however, no difference was observed between the B73 and ct2 groups (B73, mean 3.8 nodes forming a visible ear shank; ct2, 3.9 nodes). Prolificacy was not observed in pollinated groups of B73 or ct2 (Fig. 2B, C), suggesting that it requires both low pollination and mutation of ct2.


A G protein alpha mutation confers prolificacy potential in maize.

Urano D, Jackson D, Jones AM - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

The ct2 Gα- mutant forms multiple ears at a single node. (A) The main stalk of unpollinated wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 mutant. Red arrowheads point to apical ears with silks. Yellow arrowheads indicate axillary ears formed on the uppermost (top) ear shank. (B, C) Number of ears formed on the uppermost ear shank or on all nodes having ears. Data were collected from 15-week-old B73 and ct2 plants. Graphs in (B) and (C) present raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Represents significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by the Student’s t test. n.s. signifies no significant difference at the P value of 0.05. n.a. Represents not statistically analysed, because all the values of the B73 or ct2 group were identical. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online. See Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online for other images for wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 plants.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
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Figure 2: The ct2 Gα- mutant forms multiple ears at a single node. (A) The main stalk of unpollinated wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 mutant. Red arrowheads point to apical ears with silks. Yellow arrowheads indicate axillary ears formed on the uppermost (top) ear shank. (B, C) Number of ears formed on the uppermost ear shank or on all nodes having ears. Data were collected from 15-week-old B73 and ct2 plants. Graphs in (B) and (C) present raw values of B73 (blue dots) and ct2 (orange dots), the means, and the standard errors. ** Represents significant difference between B73 and ct2 groups at the P value less than 0.01 by the Student’s t test. n.s. signifies no significant difference at the P value of 0.05. n.a. Represents not statistically analysed, because all the values of the B73 or ct2 group were identical. Quantitated values are available at Supplementary Table S2 at JXB online. See Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online for other images for wild-type B73 and Gα- ct2 plants.
Mentions: In addition to the dwarf defect, we observed ct2 plants having multiple ear shoots on a single shank (Fig. 2; see Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online). The axillary ear shoots were smaller and had poor kernel fill. Supplementary Fig. S2A, B at JXB online show representative stalks of B73 and ct2 at the 14th week. Both B73 and ct2 plants usually exhibited one or two visible ear shanks, each with a single ear at the apex, when the uppermost ear was pollinated. However, about 15% of ct2 plants, while none of the B73 plants, formed several axillary ear shoots on the uppermost shank (Fig. 2B). Because poor kernel fill is associated with the multiple ear formation trait (McClelland and Janssen, 1929), pollination was inhibited and axillary ear formation was analysed (Fig. 2A; see Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online). While most B73 plants still exhibited a single ear on a shank under the non-pollinated condition, the uppermost ear node of ct2 formed multiple visible axillary ears, as indicated by arrowheads (Fig. 2A). Figure 2B and Supplementary Fig. S2C, D at JXB online provide the quantitation of this phenotype. Therefore, ct2 mutants, when unpollinated, had more visibly-developed ears per plant (B73, mean 4.1 ears; ct2, 7.8 ears), and on the uppermost node of the main stalk (B73, mean 1.3 ears; ct2, 3.9 ears). Inhibition of pollination similarly promoted development of ear shanks at lower nodes on the main stalk (Fig. 2C), however, no difference was observed between the B73 and ct2 groups (B73, mean 3.8 nodes forming a visible ear shank; ct2, 3.9 nodes). Prolificacy was not observed in pollinated groups of B73 or ct2 (Fig. 2B, C), suggesting that it requires both low pollination and mutation of ct2.

Bottom Line: The ct2 mutant partially compensated for a reduced shoot height by increased total leaf number, and had far more ears, even in the presence of pollination signals.The maize heterotrimeric G protein complex is important in some plastic developmental traits in maize.In particular, the maize Gα subunit is required to dampen the overproduction of female inflorescences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Coker Hall, NC 27599-3280, USA.

No MeSH data available.