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Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

Troia B, Khokhar AZ, Nedeljkovic M, Reynolds SA, Hu Y, Mashanovich GZ, Passaro VM - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm.Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%.Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy. benedetto.troia@poliba.it.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Vernier gain G and (b) free spectral range, , as a function of  corresponding to the Vernier configurations resulted from the algorithmic procedure.
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sensors-15-13548-f004: (a) Vernier gain G and (b) free spectral range, , as a function of corresponding to the Vernier configurations resulted from the algorithmic procedure.

Mentions: A graphical representation of the calculated algorithmic solutions is given in Figure 4a,b, where each of the 140 combinations is associated to the resulted and plotted with the corresponding Vernier gain, G, and overall Vernier FSR, . Referring to Figure 4a, it is evident that the Vernier gain increases exponentially with decreasing the value of . Theoretically, gain G even higher than 250 can be achieved with as small as few pm. Furthermore, very small values of correspond to long cascade-coupled RR lengths (i.e., , ), as indicated by the arrow at the top of the plot (Figure 4), and the number of the calculated combinations is not equally distributed along the vector since most of them are concentrated towards decreasing values of . This behavior is due because the longer the RR lengths the shorter the FSRs of the cascade-coupled RRs and the higher the number of RR resonances in the selected wavelength range of 1520–1580 nm, thus resulting in a more favorable condition for achieving the second regime of the Vernier effect, according to Equation (1). Finally, it is worth specifying that values of G and , plotted in Figure 4a,b, respectively, correspond to different Vernier configurations with specific RR lengths. Moreover, the algorithmic procedure can generate different values of G and corresponding to the same or to very close values of , meaning that Vernier architectures with different RR lengths can exhibit very similar but different performance in terms of Vernier gain and overall FSR.


Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

Troia B, Khokhar AZ, Nedeljkovic M, Reynolds SA, Hu Y, Mashanovich GZ, Passaro VM - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

(a) Vernier gain G and (b) free spectral range, , as a function of  corresponding to the Vernier configurations resulted from the algorithmic procedure.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507709&req=5

sensors-15-13548-f004: (a) Vernier gain G and (b) free spectral range, , as a function of corresponding to the Vernier configurations resulted from the algorithmic procedure.
Mentions: A graphical representation of the calculated algorithmic solutions is given in Figure 4a,b, where each of the 140 combinations is associated to the resulted and plotted with the corresponding Vernier gain, G, and overall Vernier FSR, . Referring to Figure 4a, it is evident that the Vernier gain increases exponentially with decreasing the value of . Theoretically, gain G even higher than 250 can be achieved with as small as few pm. Furthermore, very small values of correspond to long cascade-coupled RR lengths (i.e., , ), as indicated by the arrow at the top of the plot (Figure 4), and the number of the calculated combinations is not equally distributed along the vector since most of them are concentrated towards decreasing values of . This behavior is due because the longer the RR lengths the shorter the FSRs of the cascade-coupled RRs and the higher the number of RR resonances in the selected wavelength range of 1520–1580 nm, thus resulting in a more favorable condition for achieving the second regime of the Vernier effect, according to Equation (1). Finally, it is worth specifying that values of G and , plotted in Figure 4a,b, respectively, correspond to different Vernier configurations with specific RR lengths. Moreover, the algorithmic procedure can generate different values of G and corresponding to the same or to very close values of , meaning that Vernier architectures with different RR lengths can exhibit very similar but different performance in terms of Vernier gain and overall FSR.

Bottom Line: In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm.Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%.Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy. benedetto.troia@poliba.it.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

No MeSH data available.