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GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.

Lin C, Wu G, Pirozmand P - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost.Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme.Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Road No. 8, Development Zone, Dalian 116620, China. c.lin@dlut.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of transmission delay after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
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sensors-15-12932-f013: Comparison of transmission delay after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.

Mentions: The average data transmission delay with respect to different void region radii is shown in Figure 13. Owing to the data fusion delay in clusters, GTRF spends more time than the hop-by-hop routing protocol. However, GTRF still has the merit that fewer nodes will appear within a path, which reduces the possibility of encountering a void region when forwarding packets. Therefore, the probability of such a delay is small. Figure 13 indicates that there is no direct relationship between the size of the void region and the network delay in GTRF. For transmitting 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 packets, GTRF presents nearly the same transmission delay tendency. Although the delay of GTRF is higher than FTSPEED and DMRF, and even in some cases, it is also higher than the other real-time routing protocols (e.g., SPEED, SPEED-T, SPEED-S, MMSPEED), GTRF still can achieve real-time transmission.


GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.

Lin C, Wu G, Pirozmand P - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Comparison of transmission delay after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507704&req=5

sensors-15-12932-f013: Comparison of transmission delay after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
Mentions: The average data transmission delay with respect to different void region radii is shown in Figure 13. Owing to the data fusion delay in clusters, GTRF spends more time than the hop-by-hop routing protocol. However, GTRF still has the merit that fewer nodes will appear within a path, which reduces the possibility of encountering a void region when forwarding packets. Therefore, the probability of such a delay is small. Figure 13 indicates that there is no direct relationship between the size of the void region and the network delay in GTRF. For transmitting 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 packets, GTRF presents nearly the same transmission delay tendency. Although the delay of GTRF is higher than FTSPEED and DMRF, and even in some cases, it is also higher than the other real-time routing protocols (e.g., SPEED, SPEED-T, SPEED-S, MMSPEED), GTRF still can achieve real-time transmission.

Bottom Line: We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost.Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme.Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Road No. 8, Development Zone, Dalian 116620, China. c.lin@dlut.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus