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GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.

Lin C, Wu G, Pirozmand P - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline.We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost.Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Road No. 8, Development Zone, Dalian 116620, China. c.lin@dlut.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of control packets after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
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sensors-15-12932-f012: Number of control packets after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.

Mentions: In Figure 12, we analyze the relationship between the radius of void region and number of control packets. We record the number of control packets by transmitting 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 packets, respectively. All the selfish nodes will be considered as faulty nodes in all the protocols except GTRF. Due to the increasing size of the void region (the radius of the void region is within [0,5]), packet loss appears frequently, which increases the number of controlling packets in SPEED, SPEED-T, SPEED-S and MMSPEED. Whereas in FTSPEED, DMRF and GTRF, the number of the control packets changes relatively smooth. GTRF is slightly lower than DMRF and FTSPEED, because the GTRF utilizes the cluster structure; only the cluster head is capable of sending the control messages. When the radius exceeds above five, the result of each protocol displays a slow growth tendency which results from the fewer nodes working in the network. Since GTRF utilizes a cluster structure combined with the jumping transmission manner, the void region does not affect GTRF much, so the number thereby is not perturbed a lot.


GTRF: a game theory approach for regulating node behavior in real-time wireless sensor networks.

Lin C, Wu G, Pirozmand P - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Number of control packets after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507704&req=5

sensors-15-12932-f012: Number of control packets after transmitting (a) 1000; (b) 2000; (c) 5000 and (d) 10,000 packets under different routing protocols.
Mentions: In Figure 12, we analyze the relationship between the radius of void region and number of control packets. We record the number of control packets by transmitting 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 packets, respectively. All the selfish nodes will be considered as faulty nodes in all the protocols except GTRF. Due to the increasing size of the void region (the radius of the void region is within [0,5]), packet loss appears frequently, which increases the number of controlling packets in SPEED, SPEED-T, SPEED-S and MMSPEED. Whereas in FTSPEED, DMRF and GTRF, the number of the control packets changes relatively smooth. GTRF is slightly lower than DMRF and FTSPEED, because the GTRF utilizes the cluster structure; only the cluster head is capable of sending the control messages. When the radius exceeds above five, the result of each protocol displays a slow growth tendency which results from the fewer nodes working in the network. Since GTRF utilizes a cluster structure combined with the jumping transmission manner, the void region does not affect GTRF much, so the number thereby is not perturbed a lot.

Bottom Line: In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline.We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost.Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Road No. 8, Development Zone, Dalian 116620, China. c.lin@dlut.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The selfish behaviors of nodes (or selfish nodes) cause packet loss, network congestion or even void regions in real-time wireless sensor networks, which greatly decrease the network performance. Previous methods have focused on detecting selfish nodes or avoiding selfish behavior, but little attention has been paid to regulating selfish behavior. In this paper, a Game Theory-based Real-time & Fault-tolerant (GTRF) routing protocol is proposed. GTRF is composed of two stages. In the first stage, a game theory model named VA is developed to regulate nodes' behaviors and meanwhile balance energy cost. In the second stage, a jumping transmission method is adopted, which ensures that real-time packets can be successfully delivered to the sink before a specific deadline. We prove that GTRF theoretically meets real-time requirements with low energy cost. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of our scheme. Simulation results show that GTRF not only balances the energy cost of the network, but also prolongs network lifetime.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus