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Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

Shieh WY, Wang CM, Chang CS - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition.A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made.The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan. wyshieh@mail.cgu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The FSR throat-belt.
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sensors-15-12428-f003: The FSR throat-belt.

Mentions: The major component of this work is the FSR throat-belt design. Recall that the FSR should be used by contacting both sides of the sensor to change the internal conductivity. We found that if we only use medical tape to paste the FSR on a subject’s throat, the signals could not be obviously detected because medical tape cannot provide a sufficient reaction force on the FSR as the larynx or the thyroid cartilage does during swallowing. To resolve this problem, we design a throat-belt where the FSR sensor is fixed on the center of the belt and the subject can wear it around the neck, as shown in Figure 3. The belt has good elasticity and we use Velcro straps to close it. The maximal width of the belt is 5 cm, therefore it does not obstruct the natural swallowing motions. Particularly, we insert a small airbag between the belt and FSR such that FSR can be fixed on the center of the thyroid cartilage without any movement during the testing. If FSR is not fixed on that point, the measurement accuracy will be affected. When the belt is tied around the neck, the airbag will provide a stable initial pressure on the FSR which will be considered as the baseline in each measurement. During swallowing, the larynx and the thyroid cartilage will retract, resulting in released and changed pressure on the FSR, as shown in Figure 4.


Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

Shieh WY, Wang CM, Chang CS - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

The FSR throat-belt.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507683&req=5

sensors-15-12428-f003: The FSR throat-belt.
Mentions: The major component of this work is the FSR throat-belt design. Recall that the FSR should be used by contacting both sides of the sensor to change the internal conductivity. We found that if we only use medical tape to paste the FSR on a subject’s throat, the signals could not be obviously detected because medical tape cannot provide a sufficient reaction force on the FSR as the larynx or the thyroid cartilage does during swallowing. To resolve this problem, we design a throat-belt where the FSR sensor is fixed on the center of the belt and the subject can wear it around the neck, as shown in Figure 3. The belt has good elasticity and we use Velcro straps to close it. The maximal width of the belt is 5 cm, therefore it does not obstruct the natural swallowing motions. Particularly, we insert a small airbag between the belt and FSR such that FSR can be fixed on the center of the thyroid cartilage without any movement during the testing. If FSR is not fixed on that point, the measurement accuracy will be affected. When the belt is tied around the neck, the airbag will provide a stable initial pressure on the FSR which will be considered as the baseline in each measurement. During swallowing, the larynx and the thyroid cartilage will retract, resulting in released and changed pressure on the FSR, as shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition.A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made.The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan. wyshieh@mail.cgu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus