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Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes.

Ding S, Cargill AA, Das SR, Medintz IL, Claussen JC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET).Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated.The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2104 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011, USA. swding@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

No MeSH data available.


Microscopic images of the NBD nanotubes upon the addition of the fluorescence acceptor dye QSY7, which quenches NBD via FRET. Reprinted with permission from Kameta et al. [85]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
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sensors-15-14766-f003: Microscopic images of the NBD nanotubes upon the addition of the fluorescence acceptor dye QSY7, which quenches NBD via FRET. Reprinted with permission from Kameta et al. [85]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.

Mentions: One unique technique that deserves mention involves modifying the inner surfaces of CNTs with fluorescent molecules to monitor the immobilization of ferritin, a spherical protein. This has been used to visualize the dynamic encapsulation and nanofluidic features of ferritin (CALBIOCHEM; 10 mM, 5 mg/mL, MW = 500,000) and DNA in the hollow channel of a modified nanotube and is applicable for optical sensing [85]. FRET was used to visualize three behaviors of guest spherical proteins in nanotube channels through chemical modification, as seen in Figure 3. The fluorescent donor dye, 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F), was covalently bonded to an amino group on the inner surface of the nanotube. This interaction triggered fluorescence as NBD-F reacted with amino groups, even though NBD-F had no fluorescence. Using this mechanism, Kameta’s group proved the presence of NBD (from 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan) at the inner surface of CNTs [85]. This technique verifies that small molecules can not only be linked to the inner surfaces of CNTs, but they can also be optically visualized instead of CNTs. Such selective binding and visualization are amenable to various drug delivery, medical diagnostics and biosensing applications that utilize CNTs as a protective housing unit for biorecognition agents or drug components [85].


Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes.

Ding S, Cargill AA, Das SR, Medintz IL, Claussen JC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Microscopic images of the NBD nanotubes upon the addition of the fluorescence acceptor dye QSY7, which quenches NBD via FRET. Reprinted with permission from Kameta et al. [85]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507682&req=5

sensors-15-14766-f003: Microscopic images of the NBD nanotubes upon the addition of the fluorescence acceptor dye QSY7, which quenches NBD via FRET. Reprinted with permission from Kameta et al. [85]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
Mentions: One unique technique that deserves mention involves modifying the inner surfaces of CNTs with fluorescent molecules to monitor the immobilization of ferritin, a spherical protein. This has been used to visualize the dynamic encapsulation and nanofluidic features of ferritin (CALBIOCHEM; 10 mM, 5 mg/mL, MW = 500,000) and DNA in the hollow channel of a modified nanotube and is applicable for optical sensing [85]. FRET was used to visualize three behaviors of guest spherical proteins in nanotube channels through chemical modification, as seen in Figure 3. The fluorescent donor dye, 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F), was covalently bonded to an amino group on the inner surface of the nanotube. This interaction triggered fluorescence as NBD-F reacted with amino groups, even though NBD-F had no fluorescence. Using this mechanism, Kameta’s group proved the presence of NBD (from 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan) at the inner surface of CNTs [85]. This technique verifies that small molecules can not only be linked to the inner surfaces of CNTs, but they can also be optically visualized instead of CNTs. Such selective binding and visualization are amenable to various drug delivery, medical diagnostics and biosensing applications that utilize CNTs as a protective housing unit for biorecognition agents or drug components [85].

Bottom Line: In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET).Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated.The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2104 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011, USA. swding@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

No MeSH data available.