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Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes.

Ding S, Cargill AA, Das SR, Medintz IL, Claussen JC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors.Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated.The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2104 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011, USA. swding@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

No MeSH data available.


(a) The fluorescence spectra of NS-co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) as treated with different concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) ranging from 0–50.0 µM; the intensity decreases as the concentration of MTX increases and FRET is inhibited. The inset shows photographs that correspond to the increasing concentrations of MTX; (b) The linear relationship between fluorescence and MTX concentration. Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. [42]. Copyright 2015 Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier. PL, photoluminescence.
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sensors-15-14766-f001: (a) The fluorescence spectra of NS-co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) as treated with different concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) ranging from 0–50.0 µM; the intensity decreases as the concentration of MTX increases and FRET is inhibited. The inset shows photographs that correspond to the increasing concentrations of MTX; (b) The linear relationship between fluorescence and MTX concentration. Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. [42]. Copyright 2015 Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier. PL, photoluminescence.

Mentions: Pharmaceutical drug testing has been successfully carried out via NCA FRET-based sensors. For example, Wang et al. utilized FRET in the development of a biosensor designed to monitor levels of methotrexate (MTX), an anticancer drug, in patients undergoing clinical treatment. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) were developed through a green thermal treatment of ammonium persulfate, glucose and ethylenediamine [42]. The prepared dots exhibited a bright blue emission and a high quantum yield of 21.6%, as well as good water solubility, excellent chemical stability and uniform morphology [42]. In this sensor, the NSCDs were quenched via FRET from MTX, and the hydrogen bonds between NSCDs and MTX played a critical role in the quenching effects (see Figure 1). Furthermore, NSCDs have an absorption peak centered at 343 nm and exhibit the excitation spectrum at 382 nm; however, fluorescence spectra can be positively shifted by adjusting an excitation wavelength from 382 nm to 430 nm, which, in turn, greatly decreases the resultant photoluminescence (PL) intensity [42]. Through theoretical calculations, the theoretical distance between donor and acceptor when FRET efficiency is 50% was calculated to be 1.13 nm, while the actual donor-to-acceptor distance was measured as 2.78 nm. The sensor demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity, a wide linear sensing range of 50.0 µm and a low detection limit of 0.33 nM [42]. Interference testing with the presence of a series of drugs and human blood further proved the accuracy and stability of this FRET-based biosensor. Additionally, due to large fluorescence lifetimes (8.1 ± 0.2 ns), these as-prepared NSCDs could potentially be used in lifetime-based sensing or imaging [42].


Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes.

Ding S, Cargill AA, Das SR, Medintz IL, Claussen JC - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

(a) The fluorescence spectra of NS-co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) as treated with different concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) ranging from 0–50.0 µM; the intensity decreases as the concentration of MTX increases and FRET is inhibited. The inset shows photographs that correspond to the increasing concentrations of MTX; (b) The linear relationship between fluorescence and MTX concentration. Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. [42]. Copyright 2015 Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier. PL, photoluminescence.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507682&req=5

sensors-15-14766-f001: (a) The fluorescence spectra of NS-co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) as treated with different concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) ranging from 0–50.0 µM; the intensity decreases as the concentration of MTX increases and FRET is inhibited. The inset shows photographs that correspond to the increasing concentrations of MTX; (b) The linear relationship between fluorescence and MTX concentration. Reproduced with permission from Wang et al. [42]. Copyright 2015 Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Elsevier. PL, photoluminescence.
Mentions: Pharmaceutical drug testing has been successfully carried out via NCA FRET-based sensors. For example, Wang et al. utilized FRET in the development of a biosensor designed to monitor levels of methotrexate (MTX), an anticancer drug, in patients undergoing clinical treatment. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped fluorescent carbon nanodots (NSCDs) were developed through a green thermal treatment of ammonium persulfate, glucose and ethylenediamine [42]. The prepared dots exhibited a bright blue emission and a high quantum yield of 21.6%, as well as good water solubility, excellent chemical stability and uniform morphology [42]. In this sensor, the NSCDs were quenched via FRET from MTX, and the hydrogen bonds between NSCDs and MTX played a critical role in the quenching effects (see Figure 1). Furthermore, NSCDs have an absorption peak centered at 343 nm and exhibit the excitation spectrum at 382 nm; however, fluorescence spectra can be positively shifted by adjusting an excitation wavelength from 382 nm to 430 nm, which, in turn, greatly decreases the resultant photoluminescence (PL) intensity [42]. Through theoretical calculations, the theoretical distance between donor and acceptor when FRET efficiency is 50% was calculated to be 1.13 nm, while the actual donor-to-acceptor distance was measured as 2.78 nm. The sensor demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity, a wide linear sensing range of 50.0 µm and a low detection limit of 0.33 nM [42]. Interference testing with the presence of a series of drugs and human blood further proved the accuracy and stability of this FRET-based biosensor. Additionally, due to large fluorescence lifetimes (8.1 ± 0.2 ns), these as-prepared NSCDs could potentially be used in lifetime-based sensing or imaging [42].

Bottom Line: This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors.Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated.The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2104 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011, USA. swding@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

No MeSH data available.