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An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

Hao K, Jin Z, Shen H, Wang Y - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes.GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption.Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Computer and Information Engineering, Tianjin ChengJian University, 300384 Tianjin, China. littlehao@126.com.

ABSTRACT
Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

No MeSH data available.


Energy consumption with the number of nodes when N = 5.
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sensors-15-12720-f010: Energy consumption with the number of nodes when N = 5.

Mentions: With network coding, the energy consumption in a UWSN increases with the number of sensor nodes as well as the value of N. However, as shown in Figure 9, when N ≤ 6, the growth curve of GPNC is clearly lower than that of VBF_NC thanks to the fact that GPNC considers node energy consumption when selecting a path. GPNC avoids using low-energy nodes for forwarding packets in order to assure the transmission reliability and increase the lifetime of the network nodes. In particular, Figure 10 shows the difference of energy consumption between GPNC and VBF_NC when N = 5.


An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

Hao K, Jin Z, Shen H, Wang Y - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Energy consumption with the number of nodes when N = 5.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507680&req=5

sensors-15-12720-f010: Energy consumption with the number of nodes when N = 5.
Mentions: With network coding, the energy consumption in a UWSN increases with the number of sensor nodes as well as the value of N. However, as shown in Figure 9, when N ≤ 6, the growth curve of GPNC is clearly lower than that of VBF_NC thanks to the fact that GPNC considers node energy consumption when selecting a path. GPNC avoids using low-energy nodes for forwarding packets in order to assure the transmission reliability and increase the lifetime of the network nodes. In particular, Figure 10 shows the difference of energy consumption between GPNC and VBF_NC when N = 5.

Bottom Line: In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes.GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption.Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Computer and Information Engineering, Tianjin ChengJian University, 300384 Tianjin, China. littlehao@126.com.

ABSTRACT
Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

No MeSH data available.