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A Review of Membrane-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection.

van den Hurk R, Evoy S - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Biosensors are of increasing interest for the detection of bacterial pathogens in many applications such as human, animal and plant health, as well as food and water safety.This review focuses on membrane materials, their associated biosensing applications, chemical linking procedures, and transduction mechanisms.The sensitivity of membrane biosensors is discussed, and the state of the field is evaluated and summarized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, AB T6G 2V4, Canada. remko@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
Biosensors are of increasing interest for the detection of bacterial pathogens in many applications such as human, animal and plant health, as well as food and water safety. Membranes and membrane-like structures have been integral part of several pathogen detection platforms. Such structures may serve as simple mechanical support, function as a part of the transduction mechanism, may be used to filter out or concentrate pathogens, and may be engineered to specifically house active proteins. This review focuses on membrane materials, their associated biosensing applications, chemical linking procedures, and transduction mechanisms. The sensitivity of membrane biosensors is discussed, and the state of the field is evaluated and summarized.

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ELISA on a chip reaction with chemiluminescent output and lens free CMOS sensor. (A) The substrate is added to the sample pad, the HRP-conjugated antibody is released from the conjugate pad and it subsequently binds to the antigen. The antibody-antigen complex then binds to the capture antibody on the nitrocellulose membrane; (B) The luminol and hydrogen peroxide substrates are injected into the reaction chamber and the reaction is catalyzed by the HRP enzyme; (C) The chemiluminescent output is recorded by the CMOS sensor and used to quantify the antigen concentration. With permission from [49].
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sensors-15-14045-f008: ELISA on a chip reaction with chemiluminescent output and lens free CMOS sensor. (A) The substrate is added to the sample pad, the HRP-conjugated antibody is released from the conjugate pad and it subsequently binds to the antigen. The antibody-antigen complex then binds to the capture antibody on the nitrocellulose membrane; (B) The luminol and hydrogen peroxide substrates are injected into the reaction chamber and the reaction is catalyzed by the HRP enzyme; (C) The chemiluminescent output is recorded by the CMOS sensor and used to quantify the antigen concentration. With permission from [49].

Mentions: In addition to catalyzing colourimetric reactions, HRP can also be used to catalyze light emitting reactions. In one case, HRP-conjugated antibodies were used to detect virus particles and a luminol-based chemiluminescent reaction used to optically quantify the virus concentration [54]. In a different experiment superparamagnetic beads were linked to antibodies and magnetically attached to a capture bed. Subsequently, bacterial cells were labeled with peroxidase-conjugated antibodies and introduced the antibodies on the capture bed. Once again a catalyzed luminol and peroxidase-based reaction led to a chemiluminescent output which was recorded using a luminometer [68]. In a similar process, also based on a sandwich configuration, a HRP-conjugated antibody and luminol, recorded the chemiluminescence using a lens free CMOS image sensor (Figure 8) [49].


A Review of Membrane-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection.

van den Hurk R, Evoy S - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

ELISA on a chip reaction with chemiluminescent output and lens free CMOS sensor. (A) The substrate is added to the sample pad, the HRP-conjugated antibody is released from the conjugate pad and it subsequently binds to the antigen. The antibody-antigen complex then binds to the capture antibody on the nitrocellulose membrane; (B) The luminol and hydrogen peroxide substrates are injected into the reaction chamber and the reaction is catalyzed by the HRP enzyme; (C) The chemiluminescent output is recorded by the CMOS sensor and used to quantify the antigen concentration. With permission from [49].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507637&req=5

sensors-15-14045-f008: ELISA on a chip reaction with chemiluminescent output and lens free CMOS sensor. (A) The substrate is added to the sample pad, the HRP-conjugated antibody is released from the conjugate pad and it subsequently binds to the antigen. The antibody-antigen complex then binds to the capture antibody on the nitrocellulose membrane; (B) The luminol and hydrogen peroxide substrates are injected into the reaction chamber and the reaction is catalyzed by the HRP enzyme; (C) The chemiluminescent output is recorded by the CMOS sensor and used to quantify the antigen concentration. With permission from [49].
Mentions: In addition to catalyzing colourimetric reactions, HRP can also be used to catalyze light emitting reactions. In one case, HRP-conjugated antibodies were used to detect virus particles and a luminol-based chemiluminescent reaction used to optically quantify the virus concentration [54]. In a different experiment superparamagnetic beads were linked to antibodies and magnetically attached to a capture bed. Subsequently, bacterial cells were labeled with peroxidase-conjugated antibodies and introduced the antibodies on the capture bed. Once again a catalyzed luminol and peroxidase-based reaction led to a chemiluminescent output which was recorded using a luminometer [68]. In a similar process, also based on a sandwich configuration, a HRP-conjugated antibody and luminol, recorded the chemiluminescence using a lens free CMOS image sensor (Figure 8) [49].

Bottom Line: Biosensors are of increasing interest for the detection of bacterial pathogens in many applications such as human, animal and plant health, as well as food and water safety.This review focuses on membrane materials, their associated biosensing applications, chemical linking procedures, and transduction mechanisms.The sensitivity of membrane biosensors is discussed, and the state of the field is evaluated and summarized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, AB T6G 2V4, Canada. remko@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
Biosensors are of increasing interest for the detection of bacterial pathogens in many applications such as human, animal and plant health, as well as food and water safety. Membranes and membrane-like structures have been integral part of several pathogen detection platforms. Such structures may serve as simple mechanical support, function as a part of the transduction mechanism, may be used to filter out or concentrate pathogens, and may be engineered to specifically house active proteins. This review focuses on membrane materials, their associated biosensing applications, chemical linking procedures, and transduction mechanisms. The sensitivity of membrane biosensors is discussed, and the state of the field is evaluated and summarized.

Show MeSH