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Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Lee J, Park H, Kang S, Kim KI - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids.To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks.Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. jclee0333@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total number of packets vs. the number of sensor nodes.
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f9-sensors-15-13222: Total number of packets vs. the number of sensor nodes.

Mentions: Figures 9 and 10 show the total number of packets and the total number of perimeter packets, including data and control packets, according to the variation of the node density. As shown in Figure 9, although the total number of packets of each protocol decreases before a 700-node density, in most cases, BLR and BGR have more packets than the proposed protocol. This is because they have more routing failures than the proposed protocol. However, the graphs of both BLR and BGR rapidly decrease at increasing densities. We observe that the path of each protocol is almost similarly constructed at a density of 700. Furthermore, in this graph, we can see another fact: that the total number of packet from both BLR and BGR is slightly increasing after a density of 700. The reason is that if the node density is extremely high, this might lead to the collisions produced by neighbors forwarding the message, because the timers expire almost concurrently. However, since the proposed protocol exploits a novel collision avoiding scheme, called DACAS, it has only a few collisions. When there is a low density, BOSS shows the best performance compared to the others. However, as the number of nodes increases, BOSS generates more packets. This is because CTS collisions among a number of neighbor nodes may generate a forwarding failure, thus leading to retransmission on the hop.


Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Lee J, Park H, Kang S, Kim KI - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Total number of packets vs. the number of sensor nodes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507634&req=5

f9-sensors-15-13222: Total number of packets vs. the number of sensor nodes.
Mentions: Figures 9 and 10 show the total number of packets and the total number of perimeter packets, including data and control packets, according to the variation of the node density. As shown in Figure 9, although the total number of packets of each protocol decreases before a 700-node density, in most cases, BLR and BGR have more packets than the proposed protocol. This is because they have more routing failures than the proposed protocol. However, the graphs of both BLR and BGR rapidly decrease at increasing densities. We observe that the path of each protocol is almost similarly constructed at a density of 700. Furthermore, in this graph, we can see another fact: that the total number of packet from both BLR and BGR is slightly increasing after a density of 700. The reason is that if the node density is extremely high, this might lead to the collisions produced by neighbors forwarding the message, because the timers expire almost concurrently. However, since the proposed protocol exploits a novel collision avoiding scheme, called DACAS, it has only a few collisions. When there is a low density, BOSS shows the best performance compared to the others. However, as the number of nodes increases, BOSS generates more packets. This is because CTS collisions among a number of neighbor nodes may generate a forwarding failure, thus leading to retransmission on the hop.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids.To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks.Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. jclee0333@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus