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DEADS: Depth and Energy Aware Dominating Set Based Algorithm for Cooperative Routing along with Sink Mobility in Underwater WSNs.

Umar A, Javaid N, Ahmad A, Khan ZA, Qasim U, Alrajeh N, Hayat A - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility.Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility.The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. amara_t7@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Performance enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) in terms of throughput maximization, energy conservation and Bit Error Rate (BER) minimization is a potential research area. However, limited available bandwidth, high propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability leads to performance degradation in these networks. In this regard, many cooperative communication protocols have been developed that either investigate the physical layer or the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, however, the network layer is still unexplored. More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility. Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

No MeSH data available.


Packet drop attained in the networks with linear and elliptical sink mobility patterns.
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f13-sensors-15-14458: Packet drop attained in the networks with linear and elliptical sink mobility patterns.

Mentions: Figure 13 show packet drop. High packet drop of DBR, EEDBR and iAMCTD is due to the availability of single link with poor link state most of the time. In CoDBR, packet drop is lesser because of cooperative routing. Although, iAMCTD considers link state of potential forwarder node before their selection, even then, the presence of redundant links as well as implementation of MRC (diversity combining technique) gives improved results and makes DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC more reliable. In CoDBR, DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC, packets are dropped only when no link (direct link to the DS node or via CC to DS node) is available for data forwarding or SNR of combined signal received at DS node (source to DS node, source to CC to DS node) is below an acceptable limit. In CoDBR, multiple transmissions of same data packet are performed before it is received by static sink. Effect of link impairments is high because of these multiple transmissions and as a result packet drop is high. Packet drop is higher in DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC with elliptical mobility pattern as compared to linear mobility pattern of MSs. This is because the proposed model is not optimized for elliptical mobility pattern. Whenever the condition(s) specified by Hth and Sth is met, packets are generated by nodes. Sink only accepts those packets that possess an acceptable SNR value and drops the remaining packets. In DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC with elliptical mobility pattern of MSs, data packets have to traverse multiple hops in order to get received at sink because of which their probability of being erroneous is high which results in packet drop. On the other hand, MSs are available for data reception mostly at one hop distance in linear sink mobility scenario because of which packet drop is reduced. Table 2 shows that packet drop rate of DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC is lowest with linear mobility pattern of MSs.


DEADS: Depth and Energy Aware Dominating Set Based Algorithm for Cooperative Routing along with Sink Mobility in Underwater WSNs.

Umar A, Javaid N, Ahmad A, Khan ZA, Qasim U, Alrajeh N, Hayat A - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Packet drop attained in the networks with linear and elliptical sink mobility patterns.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507626&req=5

f13-sensors-15-14458: Packet drop attained in the networks with linear and elliptical sink mobility patterns.
Mentions: Figure 13 show packet drop. High packet drop of DBR, EEDBR and iAMCTD is due to the availability of single link with poor link state most of the time. In CoDBR, packet drop is lesser because of cooperative routing. Although, iAMCTD considers link state of potential forwarder node before their selection, even then, the presence of redundant links as well as implementation of MRC (diversity combining technique) gives improved results and makes DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC more reliable. In CoDBR, DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC, packets are dropped only when no link (direct link to the DS node or via CC to DS node) is available for data forwarding or SNR of combined signal received at DS node (source to DS node, source to CC to DS node) is below an acceptable limit. In CoDBR, multiple transmissions of same data packet are performed before it is received by static sink. Effect of link impairments is high because of these multiple transmissions and as a result packet drop is high. Packet drop is higher in DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC with elliptical mobility pattern as compared to linear mobility pattern of MSs. This is because the proposed model is not optimized for elliptical mobility pattern. Whenever the condition(s) specified by Hth and Sth is met, packets are generated by nodes. Sink only accepts those packets that possess an acceptable SNR value and drops the remaining packets. In DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC with elliptical mobility pattern of MSs, data packets have to traverse multiple hops in order to get received at sink because of which their probability of being erroneous is high which results in packet drop. On the other hand, MSs are available for data reception mostly at one hop distance in linear sink mobility scenario because of which packet drop is reduced. Table 2 shows that packet drop rate of DEADS-SRC and DEADS-MRC is lowest with linear mobility pattern of MSs.

Bottom Line: More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility.Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility.The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. amara_t7@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
Performance enhancement of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) in terms of throughput maximization, energy conservation and Bit Error Rate (BER) minimization is a potential research area. However, limited available bandwidth, high propagation delay, highly dynamic network topology, and high error probability leads to performance degradation in these networks. In this regard, many cooperative communication protocols have been developed that either investigate the physical layer or the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer, however, the network layer is still unexplored. More specifically, cooperative routing has not yet been jointly considered with sink mobility. Therefore, this paper aims to enhance the network reliability and efficiency via dominating set based cooperative routing and sink mobility. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show relatively improved performance of our proposed work in terms the selected performance metrics.

No MeSH data available.