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DNA-Based Nanobiosensors as an Emerging Platform for Detection of Disease.

Abu-Salah KM, Zourob MM, Mouffouk F, Alrokayan SA, Alaamery MA, Ansari AA - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs.Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases.We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Chair for Medical Applications of Nanomaterials, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. k_abusalah@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Detection of disease at an early stage is one of the biggest challenges in medicine. Different disciplines of science are working together in this regard. The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs. Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases. In addition, they could potentially be used as a platform to detect immunodeficiency, and neurological and other diseases. This review examines different types of DNA-based nanobiosensors, the basic principles upon which they are based and their advantages and potential in diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases. We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

QD-aptamer conjugate serving as both a drug delivery vehicle and a fluorescence imaging agent.
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sensors-15-14539-f006: QD-aptamer conjugate serving as both a drug delivery vehicle and a fluorescence imaging agent.

Mentions: In addition to the above discussed molecular diagnostics, aptamer-nanomaterial conjugates have also been used both as a drug delivery vehicle and fluorescence imager [137]. For example, a QD aptamer conjugate is composed of three components: Prostate cancer cell specific RNA aptamer, QD and the commonly used antitumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX) (Figure 6). Doxorubicin is an anthracycline drug which fluoresces upon intercalating into CG pairs of double stranded oligonucleotide. To form a QD-aptamer-DOX system, aptamers were conjugated to QDs and DOX was intercalated to the aptamer strand [138,139]. This system was initially “off” since the fluorescence of QD was transferred to DOX and the fluorescence of DOX was quenched by the ds RNA aptamer, Figure 6A. Upon injection into cancer cell, DOX is gradually released from the QD-aptamer-DOX system once the target molecule binds onto RNA aptamer. This DOX release recovered the fluorescence of the QD, Figure 6B. Thus the QD-aptamer-DOX system enables monitoring drug release besides allowing targeted drug delivery and bioimaging of the target cells. A similar approach has been applied to super magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for bioimaging and treatment of prostate cancer [140]. The same methodology could be extended to bioimaging other types of cancer.


DNA-Based Nanobiosensors as an Emerging Platform for Detection of Disease.

Abu-Salah KM, Zourob MM, Mouffouk F, Alrokayan SA, Alaamery MA, Ansari AA - Sensors (Basel) (2015)

QD-aptamer conjugate serving as both a drug delivery vehicle and a fluorescence imaging agent.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507582&req=5

sensors-15-14539-f006: QD-aptamer conjugate serving as both a drug delivery vehicle and a fluorescence imaging agent.
Mentions: In addition to the above discussed molecular diagnostics, aptamer-nanomaterial conjugates have also been used both as a drug delivery vehicle and fluorescence imager [137]. For example, a QD aptamer conjugate is composed of three components: Prostate cancer cell specific RNA aptamer, QD and the commonly used antitumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX) (Figure 6). Doxorubicin is an anthracycline drug which fluoresces upon intercalating into CG pairs of double stranded oligonucleotide. To form a QD-aptamer-DOX system, aptamers were conjugated to QDs and DOX was intercalated to the aptamer strand [138,139]. This system was initially “off” since the fluorescence of QD was transferred to DOX and the fluorescence of DOX was quenched by the ds RNA aptamer, Figure 6A. Upon injection into cancer cell, DOX is gradually released from the QD-aptamer-DOX system once the target molecule binds onto RNA aptamer. This DOX release recovered the fluorescence of the QD, Figure 6B. Thus the QD-aptamer-DOX system enables monitoring drug release besides allowing targeted drug delivery and bioimaging of the target cells. A similar approach has been applied to super magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for bioimaging and treatment of prostate cancer [140]. The same methodology could be extended to bioimaging other types of cancer.

Bottom Line: The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs.Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases.We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Chair for Medical Applications of Nanomaterials, King Saud University, PO Box 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. k_abusalah@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Detection of disease at an early stage is one of the biggest challenges in medicine. Different disciplines of science are working together in this regard. The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs. Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases. In addition, they could potentially be used as a platform to detect immunodeficiency, and neurological and other diseases. This review examines different types of DNA-based nanobiosensors, the basic principles upon which they are based and their advantages and potential in diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases. We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus