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The Balance of Expression of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and Flavonol Synthase Regulates Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Red Foliage Coloration in Crabapples.

Tian J, Han ZY, Zhang J, Hu Y, Song T, Yao Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame'.Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes.These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China [2] Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Red leaf color is an attractive trait of Malus families, including crabapple (Malus spp.); however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the coloration. Dihydroflavonols are intermediates in the production of both colored anthocyanins and colorless flavonols, and this current study focused on the gene expression balance involved in the relative accumulation of these compounds in crabapple leaves. Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame'. The concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols correlated with leaf color and we propose that the expression of McDFR and McFLS influences their accumulation. Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes. Conversely, elevated flavonol production and green phenotypes in crabapple leaves and apple peel were observed when McFLS was overexpressed or McDFR was silenced. These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analysis of flavonoid accumulation in 5 developmental stages of leaves from the Malus crabapple cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’.S1, 3 days after budding; S2, 9 days after budding; S3, 15 days after budding; S4, 21 days after budding; S5, 30 days after budding. (A) Five leaf developmental stages used for the analysis. (B) HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from crabapple leaf. A1, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; F1, quercetin 3-O-diglucoside; F2, procyanidin dimer; F3, quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F4, quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F5, avicularin; F6, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F7, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F8, avicularin isomer; F9, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside; F10, phloridzin. (C) The total anthocyanins content and total flavonols content in 5 developmental stages of leaves of the two crabapple cultivars. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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f2: Analysis of flavonoid accumulation in 5 developmental stages of leaves from the Malus crabapple cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’.S1, 3 days after budding; S2, 9 days after budding; S3, 15 days after budding; S4, 21 days after budding; S5, 30 days after budding. (A) Five leaf developmental stages used for the analysis. (B) HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from crabapple leaf. A1, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; F1, quercetin 3-O-diglucoside; F2, procyanidin dimer; F3, quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F4, quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F5, avicularin; F6, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F7, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F8, avicularin isomer; F9, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside; F10, phloridzin. (C) The total anthocyanins content and total flavonols content in 5 developmental stages of leaves of the two crabapple cultivars. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.

Mentions: Two extreme leaf color cultivars, ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’, have ever-red and ever-green leaves, respectively. We evaluated the abundance of anthocyanins and flavonols in the leaves of these cultivars at 5 development stages of the crabapple leaf growing season by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Fig. 2). The chromatography results showed that cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin, and we found that that the major flavonols were quercetin derived compounds, such as quercetin 3-O-diglucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer (Fig. 2B). As shown in Fig. 2C, anthocyanin levels in the ever-red leaves of ‘Royalty’ were significantly higher than those in the ever-green leaves of ‘Flame’. A gradual decrease in anthocyanin content was observed in ‘Royalty’ leaves during their development, while anthocyanins were almost undetectable in ‘Flame’ leaves. In contrast, the abundance of flavonols increased during the development of ‘Flame’ leaves, except at stage 5.


The Balance of Expression of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and Flavonol Synthase Regulates Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Red Foliage Coloration in Crabapples.

Tian J, Han ZY, Zhang J, Hu Y, Song T, Yao Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Analysis of flavonoid accumulation in 5 developmental stages of leaves from the Malus crabapple cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’.S1, 3 days after budding; S2, 9 days after budding; S3, 15 days after budding; S4, 21 days after budding; S5, 30 days after budding. (A) Five leaf developmental stages used for the analysis. (B) HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from crabapple leaf. A1, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; F1, quercetin 3-O-diglucoside; F2, procyanidin dimer; F3, quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F4, quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F5, avicularin; F6, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F7, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F8, avicularin isomer; F9, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside; F10, phloridzin. (C) The total anthocyanins content and total flavonols content in 5 developmental stages of leaves of the two crabapple cultivars. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507444&req=5

f2: Analysis of flavonoid accumulation in 5 developmental stages of leaves from the Malus crabapple cultivars ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’.S1, 3 days after budding; S2, 9 days after budding; S3, 15 days after budding; S4, 21 days after budding; S5, 30 days after budding. (A) Five leaf developmental stages used for the analysis. (B) HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from crabapple leaf. A1, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; F1, quercetin 3-O-diglucoside; F2, procyanidin dimer; F3, quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F4, quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F5, avicularin; F6, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glucoside; F7, acetyl quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer; F8, avicularin isomer; F9, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside; F10, phloridzin. (C) The total anthocyanins content and total flavonols content in 5 developmental stages of leaves of the two crabapple cultivars. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean ± SE of three replicate measurements. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
Mentions: Two extreme leaf color cultivars, ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’, have ever-red and ever-green leaves, respectively. We evaluated the abundance of anthocyanins and flavonols in the leaves of these cultivars at 5 development stages of the crabapple leaf growing season by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Fig. 2). The chromatography results showed that cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin, and we found that that the major flavonols were quercetin derived compounds, such as quercetin 3-O-diglucoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glycosidase isomer (Fig. 2B). As shown in Fig. 2C, anthocyanin levels in the ever-red leaves of ‘Royalty’ were significantly higher than those in the ever-green leaves of ‘Flame’. A gradual decrease in anthocyanin content was observed in ‘Royalty’ leaves during their development, while anthocyanins were almost undetectable in ‘Flame’ leaves. In contrast, the abundance of flavonols increased during the development of ‘Flame’ leaves, except at stage 5.

Bottom Line: Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame'.Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes.These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China [2] Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Red leaf color is an attractive trait of Malus families, including crabapple (Malus spp.); however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the coloration. Dihydroflavonols are intermediates in the production of both colored anthocyanins and colorless flavonols, and this current study focused on the gene expression balance involved in the relative accumulation of these compounds in crabapple leaves. Levels of anthocyanins and the transcript abundances of the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (McDFR) and the flavonol biosynthetic gene, flavonol synthase (McFLS), were assessed during the leaf development in two crabapple cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame'. The concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols correlated with leaf color and we propose that the expression of McDFR and McFLS influences their accumulation. Further studies showed that overexpression of McDFR, or silencing of McFLS, increased anthocyanin production, resulting in red-leaf and red fruit peel phenotypes. Conversely, elevated flavonol production and green phenotypes in crabapple leaves and apple peel were observed when McFLS was overexpressed or McDFR was silenced. These results suggest that the relative activities of McDFR and McFLS are important determinants of the red color of crabapple leaves, via the regulation of the metabolic fate of substrates that these enzymes have in common.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus