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Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review.

Mahale RR, Mehta A, Rangasetty S - J Clin Neurol (2015)

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium.The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay.The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, MS Ramaiah Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. rohanmahale83@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain axial T1-weighted image showing a large, hypointense, lobulated, and cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe, causing a mass effect.
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Figure 6: Brain axial T1-weighted image showing a large, hypointense, lobulated, and cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe, causing a mass effect.

Mentions: In rare cases racemose neurocysticercosis can cause dementia as a sole presenting feature in the patient.44 However, 66-87.5% of patients with neurocysticercosis have been reported to have cognitive disturbances, and dementia or severe cognitive decline has been reported in 12.5-15.6% of patients.454647 The mechanisms proposed for cognitive decline in neurocysticercosis include raised intracranial pressure, number and location of neurocysticercosises, different phases of evolution, inflammatory cytokines, and the host's immune response.45 The reversibility of dementia depends upon the predominant underlying mechanism. Dementia due to raised intracranial pressure as an underlying mechanism has an excellent outcome as compared to multiple parenchymal parasitic and vascular lesions. Racemose neurocysticercosis can also present with a mass effect (Figs. 6 and 7).48 There are reports of racemose neurocysticercosis occurring in the cerebellar hemisphere.49


Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review.

Mahale RR, Mehta A, Rangasetty S - J Clin Neurol (2015)

Brain axial T1-weighted image showing a large, hypointense, lobulated, and cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe, causing a mass effect.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4507373&req=5

Figure 6: Brain axial T1-weighted image showing a large, hypointense, lobulated, and cystic lesion in the right frontal lobe, causing a mass effect.
Mentions: In rare cases racemose neurocysticercosis can cause dementia as a sole presenting feature in the patient.44 However, 66-87.5% of patients with neurocysticercosis have been reported to have cognitive disturbances, and dementia or severe cognitive decline has been reported in 12.5-15.6% of patients.454647 The mechanisms proposed for cognitive decline in neurocysticercosis include raised intracranial pressure, number and location of neurocysticercosises, different phases of evolution, inflammatory cytokines, and the host's immune response.45 The reversibility of dementia depends upon the predominant underlying mechanism. Dementia due to raised intracranial pressure as an underlying mechanism has an excellent outcome as compared to multiple parenchymal parasitic and vascular lesions. Racemose neurocysticercosis can also present with a mass effect (Figs. 6 and 7).48 There are reports of racemose neurocysticercosis occurring in the cerebellar hemisphere.49

Bottom Line: Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium.The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay.The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, MS Ramaiah Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. rohanmahale83@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus