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Han JH, Chung YH, Lim CH - Toxicol Res (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Research Team, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Trichloroacetonitrile is used as an intermediate in insecticides, pesticides, and dyes. In Korea alone, over 10 tons are used annually. Its oral and dermal toxicity is classified as category 3 according to the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals, and it is designated a toxic substance by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. There are no available inhalation toxicity data on trichloroacetonitrile. Thus, the present study performed inhalation tests to provide data for hazard and risk assessments. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to trichloroacetonitrile at concentrations of 4, 16, or 64 ppm for 6 hour per day 5 days per week for 13 weeks in a repeated study. As a result, salivation, shortness of breath, and wheezing were observed, and their body weights decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 16 and 64 ppm groups. All the rats in 64 ppm group were dead or moribund within 4 weeks of the exposure. Some significant changes were observed in blood hematology and serum biochemistry (e.g., prothrombin time, ratio of albumin and globulin, blood urea nitrogen, and triglycerides), but the values were within normal physiological ranges. The major target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs. The rats exposed to 16 ppm showed moderate histopathological changes in the transitional epithelium and olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and respiratory epithelium were also changed. Respiratory lesions were common in the dead rats that had been exposed to the 64 ppm concentration. The dead animals also showed loss of cilia in the trachea, pneumonitis in the lung, and epithelial hyperplasia in the bronchi and bronchioles. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was estimated to be 4 ppm. The main target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs.

No MeSH data available.


Daily mean food consumption of male rats exposed to trichloroacetonitrile for 13 weeks. Significant differences as compared with a control, *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
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Figure 005: Daily mean food consumption of male rats exposed to trichloroacetonitrile for 13 weeks. Significant differences as compared with a control, *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

Mentions: Salivation, shortness of breath, and wheezing were observed in the medium- and high-exposure groups. There were no treatment-related toxic signs observed in any of the rats in the low-exposure group (data not shown). The average body weights of the rats in the high-exposure group decreased on the first day of the exposure and then increased slowly for the next 2 weeks. However, all were dead or moribund within 4 weeks of the exposure. The body weight gains of both male and female rats were significantly slow (p < 0.01) in the medium-exposure group (Fig. 2 and 3). The food consumption of the males and females in the medium-exposure group decreased significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) compared to that of a normal control group (Fig. 4 and 5). Trichloroacetonitrile exposure did not affect the physical activity level of the rats (Fig. 6).


[Not Available].

Han JH, Chung YH, Lim CH - Toxicol Res (2015)

Daily mean food consumption of male rats exposed to trichloroacetonitrile for 13 weeks. Significant differences as compared with a control, *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4505351&req=5

Figure 005: Daily mean food consumption of male rats exposed to trichloroacetonitrile for 13 weeks. Significant differences as compared with a control, *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Mentions: Salivation, shortness of breath, and wheezing were observed in the medium- and high-exposure groups. There were no treatment-related toxic signs observed in any of the rats in the low-exposure group (data not shown). The average body weights of the rats in the high-exposure group decreased on the first day of the exposure and then increased slowly for the next 2 weeks. However, all were dead or moribund within 4 weeks of the exposure. The body weight gains of both male and female rats were significantly slow (p < 0.01) in the medium-exposure group (Fig. 2 and 3). The food consumption of the males and females in the medium-exposure group decreased significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) compared to that of a normal control group (Fig. 4 and 5). Trichloroacetonitrile exposure did not affect the physical activity level of the rats (Fig. 6).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Research Team, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Trichloroacetonitrile is used as an intermediate in insecticides, pesticides, and dyes. In Korea alone, over 10 tons are used annually. Its oral and dermal toxicity is classified as category 3 according to the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals, and it is designated a toxic substance by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. There are no available inhalation toxicity data on trichloroacetonitrile. Thus, the present study performed inhalation tests to provide data for hazard and risk assessments. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to trichloroacetonitrile at concentrations of 4, 16, or 64 ppm for 6 hour per day 5 days per week for 13 weeks in a repeated study. As a result, salivation, shortness of breath, and wheezing were observed, and their body weights decreased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) in the 16 and 64 ppm groups. All the rats in 64 ppm group were dead or moribund within 4 weeks of the exposure. Some significant changes were observed in blood hematology and serum biochemistry (e.g., prothrombin time, ratio of albumin and globulin, blood urea nitrogen, and triglycerides), but the values were within normal physiological ranges. The major target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs. The rats exposed to 16 ppm showed moderate histopathological changes in the transitional epithelium and olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and respiratory epithelium were also changed. Respiratory lesions were common in the dead rats that had been exposed to the 64 ppm concentration. The dead animals also showed loss of cilia in the trachea, pneumonitis in the lung, and epithelial hyperplasia in the bronchi and bronchioles. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was estimated to be 4 ppm. The main target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs.

No MeSH data available.