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Toxicity of Two Different Sized Lanthanum Oxides in Cultured Cells and Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Lim CH - Toxicol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3.Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time.The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Research Team, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-La2O3, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was stronger than that of micro-La2O3 in the A549 cells. We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytotoxicity of the two lanthanum oxides in RAW264.7 cells (A) and A549 cells (B). Toxicity was determined with an alamar-Blue assay. a, micro-La2O3 without sonication; b, micro-La2O3 with sonication; c, nano-La2O3 without sonication; d, nano-La2O3 with sonication.
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Figure 003: Cytotoxicity of the two lanthanum oxides in RAW264.7 cells (A) and A549 cells (B). Toxicity was determined with an alamar-Blue assay. a, micro-La2O3 without sonication; b, micro-La2O3 with sonication; c, nano-La2O3 without sonication; d, nano-La2O3 with sonication.

Mentions: Effect of lanthanum oxide in the cultured cells. The effects of the lanthanum oxides on the RAW264.7 and A549 cells are presented in Fig. 3, and the results are summarized in Table 2. The RAW264.7 cells were more sensitive to the lanthanum oxides than the A549 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of micro-La2O3 and nano-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells were 26.5 µg/mL and 2.08 µg/mL, respectively, and 172.9 µg/mL and 50.6 µg/mL in the A549 cells, respectively. When the toxicity was compared according to particle size, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was more severe than that of micro-La2O3. The IC50 of nano-La2O3 was 12.7 times lower than that of micro-La2O3 when the lanthanum oxides were unsonicated. Sonication also increased the toxicity of the lanthanum oxides. The IC50 of the sonicated micro-La2O3 and nano-La2O3 decreased 6.4 times and 8.7 times, respectively, in the RAW264.7 cells and 6.1 times and 14.1 times, respectively, in the A549 cells.


Toxicity of Two Different Sized Lanthanum Oxides in Cultured Cells and Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Lim CH - Toxicol Res (2015)

Cytotoxicity of the two lanthanum oxides in RAW264.7 cells (A) and A549 cells (B). Toxicity was determined with an alamar-Blue assay. a, micro-La2O3 without sonication; b, micro-La2O3 with sonication; c, nano-La2O3 without sonication; d, nano-La2O3 with sonication.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4505349&req=5

Figure 003: Cytotoxicity of the two lanthanum oxides in RAW264.7 cells (A) and A549 cells (B). Toxicity was determined with an alamar-Blue assay. a, micro-La2O3 without sonication; b, micro-La2O3 with sonication; c, nano-La2O3 without sonication; d, nano-La2O3 with sonication.
Mentions: Effect of lanthanum oxide in the cultured cells. The effects of the lanthanum oxides on the RAW264.7 and A549 cells are presented in Fig. 3, and the results are summarized in Table 2. The RAW264.7 cells were more sensitive to the lanthanum oxides than the A549 cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of micro-La2O3 and nano-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells were 26.5 µg/mL and 2.08 µg/mL, respectively, and 172.9 µg/mL and 50.6 µg/mL in the A549 cells, respectively. When the toxicity was compared according to particle size, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was more severe than that of micro-La2O3. The IC50 of nano-La2O3 was 12.7 times lower than that of micro-La2O3 when the lanthanum oxides were unsonicated. Sonication also increased the toxicity of the lanthanum oxides. The IC50 of the sonicated micro-La2O3 and nano-La2O3 decreased 6.4 times and 8.7 times, respectively, in the RAW264.7 cells and 6.1 times and 14.1 times, respectively, in the A549 cells.

Bottom Line: We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3.Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time.The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toxicity Research Team, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Daejeon, Korea.

ABSTRACT
In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-La2O3 in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-La2O3, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-La2O3 was stronger than that of micro-La2O3 in the A549 cells. We found that nano-La2O3 was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-La2O3. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus