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Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

Abraham S, Basukriadi A, Pawiroharsono S, Sjamsuridzal W - Mycobiology (2015)

Bottom Line: The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins.The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents.This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Linear regression of PROBIT mortality against log concentration of ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate from Aspergillus oryzae BPPTCC 6036 (A), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6035 (B), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6038 (C), Aspergillus tamarii BPPTCC 6037 (D), and Aspergillus versicolor BPPTCC 6039 (E), based on brine shrimp lethality test using larvae of A. salina. BPPTCC, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (Agency for The Assessment and Applications of Technology) Culture Collection, Tangerang, Indonesia.
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Figure 2: Linear regression of PROBIT mortality against log concentration of ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate from Aspergillus oryzae BPPTCC 6036 (A), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6035 (B), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6038 (C), Aspergillus tamarii BPPTCC 6037 (D), and Aspergillus versicolor BPPTCC 6039 (E), based on brine shrimp lethality test using larvae of A. salina. BPPTCC, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (Agency for The Assessment and Applications of Technology) Culture Collection, Tangerang, Indonesia.

Mentions: Table 4 shows the LC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts from five fungal strains based on the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The linear regression of the probit analysis was used to calculate the LC50 value for each extract, as depicted in Fig. 2. As shown in Table 4, the LC50 values of the five fungal extracts against A. salina larvae ranged from 7.45 ppm to 10.24 ppm. The extract that showed the lowest LC50 value was from A. tamarii (7.45 ppm) which, as mentioned, was rated as highly toxic, causing 96.67% mortality of A. salina larvae. Miao et al. [55] found that the LC50 value of 6-O-methylaverufin produced by the endophytic fungus A. versicolor and isolated from the brown algae Sargassum thunbergii was 0.5 µg/mL, or 5 × 10-4 ppm. Another study reported that 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone and aflaquinolone A derivatives produced by A. nidulans which was isolated from fresh leaves of the mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa exhibited toxic activities against A. salina, with LC50 values ranging from 4.5 to 7.1 µM [46]. In the present study, the LC50 values of A. versicolor and E. nidulans extracts were 8.89 and 9.96 ppm, respectively, more toxic than the results of the two studies discussed [4655]. Of note, their studies used single compounds, whereas the present study used crude extracts. According to the standard which classifies active plant compounds and extracts as toxic if their LC50 value is < 1,000 µg/mL or < 1,000 ppm [56], all extracts produced by the five fungal strains in this study are classified as toxic.


Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

Abraham S, Basukriadi A, Pawiroharsono S, Sjamsuridzal W - Mycobiology (2015)

Linear regression of PROBIT mortality against log concentration of ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate from Aspergillus oryzae BPPTCC 6036 (A), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6035 (B), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6038 (C), Aspergillus tamarii BPPTCC 6037 (D), and Aspergillus versicolor BPPTCC 6039 (E), based on brine shrimp lethality test using larvae of A. salina. BPPTCC, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (Agency for The Assessment and Applications of Technology) Culture Collection, Tangerang, Indonesia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4505002&req=5

Figure 2: Linear regression of PROBIT mortality against log concentration of ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate from Aspergillus oryzae BPPTCC 6036 (A), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6035 (B), Emericella nidulans BPPTCC 6038 (C), Aspergillus tamarii BPPTCC 6037 (D), and Aspergillus versicolor BPPTCC 6039 (E), based on brine shrimp lethality test using larvae of A. salina. BPPTCC, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (Agency for The Assessment and Applications of Technology) Culture Collection, Tangerang, Indonesia.
Mentions: Table 4 shows the LC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts from five fungal strains based on the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The linear regression of the probit analysis was used to calculate the LC50 value for each extract, as depicted in Fig. 2. As shown in Table 4, the LC50 values of the five fungal extracts against A. salina larvae ranged from 7.45 ppm to 10.24 ppm. The extract that showed the lowest LC50 value was from A. tamarii (7.45 ppm) which, as mentioned, was rated as highly toxic, causing 96.67% mortality of A. salina larvae. Miao et al. [55] found that the LC50 value of 6-O-methylaverufin produced by the endophytic fungus A. versicolor and isolated from the brown algae Sargassum thunbergii was 0.5 µg/mL, or 5 × 10-4 ppm. Another study reported that 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone and aflaquinolone A derivatives produced by A. nidulans which was isolated from fresh leaves of the mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa exhibited toxic activities against A. salina, with LC50 values ranging from 4.5 to 7.1 µM [46]. In the present study, the LC50 values of A. versicolor and E. nidulans extracts were 8.89 and 9.96 ppm, respectively, more toxic than the results of the two studies discussed [4655]. Of note, their studies used single compounds, whereas the present study used crude extracts. According to the standard which classifies active plant compounds and extracts as toxic if their LC50 value is < 1,000 µg/mL or < 1,000 ppm [56], all extracts produced by the five fungal strains in this study are classified as toxic.

Bottom Line: The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins.The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents.This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus