Limits...
Immunologic Characterization of Cytokine Responses to Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infection in Children.

Zhang SY, Xu MY, Xu HM, Li XJ, Ding SJ, Wang XJ, Li TY, Lu QB - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Bottom Line: Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16.These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Clinical Laboratory, General Hospital of Beijing Military Region (S-YZ); Department of Nutrition, Aerospace Center Hospital, Beijing (M-YX); Chongqing Children's hospital, Chongqing (H-MX, T-YL); School of Public health College, Shandong University (X-JL); Department of Viral Infectious Diseases Control and Prevention, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan (S-JD, X-JW); and School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China (Q-BL).

ABSTRACT
Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytokines concentrations (pg/mL) in serum samples from 4 groups: EV17/CV-A16 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 16), EV-71 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 24), EV-71 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 18), and CV-A16 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 34). Data were analyzed by using column scatter plot. Scatter plots show median within each column. Significance determined by the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. HFMD = hand, foot, and mouth disease. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4504596&req=5

Figure 2: Cytokines concentrations (pg/mL) in serum samples from 4 groups: EV17/CV-A16 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 16), EV-71 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 24), EV-71 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 18), and CV-A16 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 34). Data were analyzed by using column scatter plot. Scatter plots show median within each column. Significance determined by the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. HFMD = hand, foot, and mouth disease. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

Mentions: When HFMD patients without encephalitis were separately considered, 5 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β) were produced with significantly higher levels in patients with EV-71 infection than those with CV-A16 infection. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-5 were observed in the EV-71 infected patients with encephalitis (n = 24) than those without encephalitis (n = 34) (both P < 0.001) (Figure 2). The elevated IFN-γ and IL-5 were postulated to be correlated with both EV-71 infection and encephalitis development following EV-71 infection.


Immunologic Characterization of Cytokine Responses to Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infection in Children.

Zhang SY, Xu MY, Xu HM, Li XJ, Ding SJ, Wang XJ, Li TY, Lu QB - Medicine (Baltimore) (2015)

Cytokines concentrations (pg/mL) in serum samples from 4 groups: EV17/CV-A16 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 16), EV-71 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 24), EV-71 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 18), and CV-A16 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 34). Data were analyzed by using column scatter plot. Scatter plots show median within each column. Significance determined by the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. HFMD = hand, foot, and mouth disease. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4504596&req=5

Figure 2: Cytokines concentrations (pg/mL) in serum samples from 4 groups: EV17/CV-A16 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 16), EV-71 associated viral encephalitis patients (n = 24), EV-71 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 18), and CV-A16 infected mild HFMD patients (n = 34). Data were analyzed by using column scatter plot. Scatter plots show median within each column. Significance determined by the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. HFMD = hand, foot, and mouth disease. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.
Mentions: When HFMD patients without encephalitis were separately considered, 5 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β) were produced with significantly higher levels in patients with EV-71 infection than those with CV-A16 infection. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-5 were observed in the EV-71 infected patients with encephalitis (n = 24) than those without encephalitis (n = 34) (both P < 0.001) (Figure 2). The elevated IFN-γ and IL-5 were postulated to be correlated with both EV-71 infection and encephalitis development following EV-71 infection.

Bottom Line: Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16.These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: From the Department of Clinical Laboratory, General Hospital of Beijing Military Region (S-YZ); Department of Nutrition, Aerospace Center Hospital, Beijing (M-YX); Chongqing Children's hospital, Chongqing (H-MX, T-YL); School of Public health College, Shandong University (X-JL); Department of Viral Infectious Diseases Control and Prevention, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan (S-JD, X-JW); and School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China (Q-BL).

ABSTRACT
Viral encephalitis is a serious complication of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but characteristics of cytokines response in enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and/or coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) associated HFMD with or without viral encephalitis remained unclear.We performed a multigroup retrospective study and compared the serum cytokines concentrations among 16 encephalitis patients infected with EV-71 and CV-A16, 24 encephalitis patients with single EV-71 infection, 34 mild HFMD patients with EV-71 infection, 18 mild HFMD patients with CV-A16 infection, and 39 healthy control subjects.Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-22, and IL-23 were significantly higher in encephalitis patients than in HFMD-alone patients when adjusting for age and sex; IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-22, and IL-1β were significantly higher in HFMD-alone patients of EV-71 infection than in CV-A16 infected HFMD patients; cerebrospinal fluid level of IL-6 was lower in the EV-71/CV-A16 associated encephalitis than that in the EV-71 alone associated encephalitis patients.Over or low expression of the cytokines cascade in HFMD patients appears to play an important role in the elicitation of the immune response to EV-71 and CV-A16. These data will be used to define a cytokine profile, which might help to recognize HFMD patients with the high risk of developing encephalitis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus