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Schistosoma mansoni among pre-school children in Musozi village, Ukerewe Island, North-Western-Tanzania: prevalence and associated risk factors.

Ruganuza DM, Mazigo HD, Waihenya R, Morona D, Mkoji GM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is considering including this age group in highly endemic areas in control programmes using mass drug administration (MDA).Based on the CCA, 80.1%, (95% CI: 76.0-84.0) were infected if a trace was considered positive, and 45.9%, (95% CI: 40.9-50.9), were infected if a trace was considered negative.These findings call for the need to include the PSC in MDA programmes, public health education and provision of safe water for bathing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania. deorugz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent evidence indicates that pre-school children (PSC) living in S. mansoni highly endemic areas are at similar risk of schistosomiasis infection and morbidity as their school aged siblings. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is considering including this age group in highly endemic areas in control programmes using mass drug administration (MDA). However, detailed epidemiological information on S. mansoni infection among PSC is lacking for many endemic areas, specifically in Tanzania. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and its associated risk factors among PSC in Ukerewe Island, North-Western Tanzania.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which studied 400 PSC aged 1-6 years. The Kato-Katz (K-K) technique and the point of care circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) immunodiagnostic test were used to diagnose S. mansoni infection in stool and urine samples respectively. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and water contact behaviour of the children from their parents/guardians.

Results: Based on the K-K technique, 44.4% (95% CI: 39.4-49.4) pre-school children were infected with S. mansoni and the overall geometric mean eggs per gram of faeces (GM-epg) was 110.6 epg with 38.2 and 14.7% having moderate and heavy intensity infections respectively. Based on the CCA, 80.1%, (95% CI: 76.0-84.0) were infected if a trace was considered positive, and 45.9%, (95% CI: 40.9-50.9), were infected if a trace was considered negative. Reported history of lake visits (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.06-5.01, P < 0.03) and the proximity to the lake shore (<500 m) (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.05-4.14, P < 0.03) were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. Reported lake visit frequency (4-7 days/week) was associated with heavy intensities of S. mansoni infection (P < 0.00).

Conclusion: The prevalence of S. mansoni infection in the study population using K-K and CCA-trace-negative was moderate. The frequency of lake visits and the proximity to the lake shore were associated with the infection of S. mansoni and its intensity. These findings call for the need to include the PSC in MDA programmes, public health education and provision of safe water for bathing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of S. mansoni based on circulating cathodic antigen, a: not including trace and b:including trace and c: combined Kato Katz and CCA trace positive among 383 pre-school children of Musozi villages, north-western Tanzania, stratified by age
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Fig3: Prevalence of S. mansoni based on circulating cathodic antigen, a: not including trace and b:including trace and c: combined Kato Katz and CCA trace positive among 383 pre-school children of Musozi villages, north-western Tanzania, stratified by age

Mentions: The prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on Point of Care-Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine (POC-CCA) cassette tests, stratified by age and sex, is shown in Fig. 3. With regards to the POC-CCA, considering a trace as a positive result (CCAt+), 309/386, 80.1 % (95 % CI: 76.0–84.0) of the PSC were infected with S. mansoni. Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni in male children was 80.9 % (95 % CI: 75.3–85.3), while the prevalence for females was 79.1 % (95 % CI: 73.3–85.0). Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni (CCAt+) was 69.3, 64.5, 76.1, 93.0, 87.0 and 96.0 % for age groups 1- < 2, 2- < 3, 3- < 4, 4- < 5, 5- < 6, 6- < 7 years respectively. Considering a trace as a negative result (CCAt-), 177 out of 386 were found positive for S. mansoni infection and the prevalence was 45.9 % (95 % CI: 40.9–50.9). The prevalence of S. mansoni in male children was 48.2 % (95 % CI: 41.2–51.2) while the prevalence in female children was 43.3 % (95 % CI: 36.2–50.5). Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 21.0, 18.4, 38.8, 57.9, 69.6 and 78.2 % for age groups 1- < 2, 2- < 3, 3- < 4, 4- < 5, 5- < 6, 6- < 7 years respectively.Fig. 3


Schistosoma mansoni among pre-school children in Musozi village, Ukerewe Island, North-Western-Tanzania: prevalence and associated risk factors.

Ruganuza DM, Mazigo HD, Waihenya R, Morona D, Mkoji GM - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Prevalence of S. mansoni based on circulating cathodic antigen, a: not including trace and b:including trace and c: combined Kato Katz and CCA trace positive among 383 pre-school children of Musozi villages, north-western Tanzania, stratified by age
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4504164&req=5

Fig3: Prevalence of S. mansoni based on circulating cathodic antigen, a: not including trace and b:including trace and c: combined Kato Katz and CCA trace positive among 383 pre-school children of Musozi villages, north-western Tanzania, stratified by age
Mentions: The prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on Point of Care-Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine (POC-CCA) cassette tests, stratified by age and sex, is shown in Fig. 3. With regards to the POC-CCA, considering a trace as a positive result (CCAt+), 309/386, 80.1 % (95 % CI: 76.0–84.0) of the PSC were infected with S. mansoni. Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni in male children was 80.9 % (95 % CI: 75.3–85.3), while the prevalence for females was 79.1 % (95 % CI: 73.3–85.0). Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni (CCAt+) was 69.3, 64.5, 76.1, 93.0, 87.0 and 96.0 % for age groups 1- < 2, 2- < 3, 3- < 4, 4- < 5, 5- < 6, 6- < 7 years respectively. Considering a trace as a negative result (CCAt-), 177 out of 386 were found positive for S. mansoni infection and the prevalence was 45.9 % (95 % CI: 40.9–50.9). The prevalence of S. mansoni in male children was 48.2 % (95 % CI: 41.2–51.2) while the prevalence in female children was 43.3 % (95 % CI: 36.2–50.5). Stratified by age, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 21.0, 18.4, 38.8, 57.9, 69.6 and 78.2 % for age groups 1- < 2, 2- < 3, 3- < 4, 4- < 5, 5- < 6, 6- < 7 years respectively.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is considering including this age group in highly endemic areas in control programmes using mass drug administration (MDA).Based on the CCA, 80.1%, (95% CI: 76.0-84.0) were infected if a trace was considered positive, and 45.9%, (95% CI: 40.9-50.9), were infected if a trace was considered negative.These findings call for the need to include the PSC in MDA programmes, public health education and provision of safe water for bathing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania. deorugz@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent evidence indicates that pre-school children (PSC) living in S. mansoni highly endemic areas are at similar risk of schistosomiasis infection and morbidity as their school aged siblings. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is considering including this age group in highly endemic areas in control programmes using mass drug administration (MDA). However, detailed epidemiological information on S. mansoni infection among PSC is lacking for many endemic areas, specifically in Tanzania. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and its associated risk factors among PSC in Ukerewe Island, North-Western Tanzania.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which studied 400 PSC aged 1-6 years. The Kato-Katz (K-K) technique and the point of care circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) immunodiagnostic test were used to diagnose S. mansoni infection in stool and urine samples respectively. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and water contact behaviour of the children from their parents/guardians.

Results: Based on the K-K technique, 44.4% (95% CI: 39.4-49.4) pre-school children were infected with S. mansoni and the overall geometric mean eggs per gram of faeces (GM-epg) was 110.6 epg with 38.2 and 14.7% having moderate and heavy intensity infections respectively. Based on the CCA, 80.1%, (95% CI: 76.0-84.0) were infected if a trace was considered positive, and 45.9%, (95% CI: 40.9-50.9), were infected if a trace was considered negative. Reported history of lake visits (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.06-5.01, P < 0.03) and the proximity to the lake shore (<500 m) (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.05-4.14, P < 0.03) were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. Reported lake visit frequency (4-7 days/week) was associated with heavy intensities of S. mansoni infection (P < 0.00).

Conclusion: The prevalence of S. mansoni infection in the study population using K-K and CCA-trace-negative was moderate. The frequency of lake visits and the proximity to the lake shore were associated with the infection of S. mansoni and its intensity. These findings call for the need to include the PSC in MDA programmes, public health education and provision of safe water for bathing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus