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Unlocking the Sporicidal Potential of Ethanol: Induced Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions.

Nerandzic MM, Sunkesula VC, C TS, Setlow P, Donskey CJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature.On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to their efficacy and convenience, alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been widely adopted as the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings. However, alcohols lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We hypothesized that sporicidal activity could be induced in alcohols through alteration of physical or chemical conditions that have been shown to degrade or allow penetration of spore coats.

Principal findings: Acidification, alkalinization, and heating of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C. difficile, and to a lesser extent Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis. The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature. On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of soap and water wash versus acidified ethanol solutions for removal of Clostridium difficile (VA17 and VA11) spores from porcine skin sections.Fifty microliters of each formulation was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 30 seconds with a second inoculated section of porcine skin. To simulate a soap and water hand wash, 50 microliters of soap was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 20 seconds with a second inoculated section. Both sections were rinsed with running tap water until soap was removed, and then patted dry on paper towels. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from treated versus untreated porcine skin sections. The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
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pone.0132805.g008: Comparison of soap and water wash versus acidified ethanol solutions for removal of Clostridium difficile (VA17 and VA11) spores from porcine skin sections.Fifty microliters of each formulation was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 30 seconds with a second inoculated section of porcine skin. To simulate a soap and water hand wash, 50 microliters of soap was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 20 seconds with a second inoculated section. Both sections were rinsed with running tap water until soap was removed, and then patted dry on paper towels. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from treated versus untreated porcine skin sections. The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.

Mentions: Acidified ethanol was effective in reducing recovery of C. difficile spores (nontoxigenic strain 43593) on hands (Fig 7, S7 File). A soap and water hand wash reduced C. difficile spores by ~1.5 log10CFU, whereas commercial ethanol-based hand sanitizer did not reduce spore counts. Ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 was as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing spore recovery from hands. Ethanol adjusted to pH 2.0 with increased ionic strength was also as effective as soap and water (~1.5 log10CFU reduction). Similar results were achieved with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (VA17) using a porcine skin model (Fig 8, S8 File).


Unlocking the Sporicidal Potential of Ethanol: Induced Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions.

Nerandzic MM, Sunkesula VC, C TS, Setlow P, Donskey CJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of soap and water wash versus acidified ethanol solutions for removal of Clostridium difficile (VA17 and VA11) spores from porcine skin sections.Fifty microliters of each formulation was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 30 seconds with a second inoculated section of porcine skin. To simulate a soap and water hand wash, 50 microliters of soap was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 20 seconds with a second inoculated section. Both sections were rinsed with running tap water until soap was removed, and then patted dry on paper towels. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from treated versus untreated porcine skin sections. The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4503543&req=5

pone.0132805.g008: Comparison of soap and water wash versus acidified ethanol solutions for removal of Clostridium difficile (VA17 and VA11) spores from porcine skin sections.Fifty microliters of each formulation was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 30 seconds with a second inoculated section of porcine skin. To simulate a soap and water hand wash, 50 microliters of soap was pipetted onto an inoculated section of porcine skin and rubbed for 20 seconds with a second inoculated section. Both sections were rinsed with running tap water until soap was removed, and then patted dry on paper towels. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from treated versus untreated porcine skin sections. The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
Mentions: Acidified ethanol was effective in reducing recovery of C. difficile spores (nontoxigenic strain 43593) on hands (Fig 7, S7 File). A soap and water hand wash reduced C. difficile spores by ~1.5 log10CFU, whereas commercial ethanol-based hand sanitizer did not reduce spore counts. Ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 was as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing spore recovery from hands. Ethanol adjusted to pH 2.0 with increased ionic strength was also as effective as soap and water (~1.5 log10CFU reduction). Similar results were achieved with a toxigenic C. difficile strain (VA17) using a porcine skin model (Fig 8, S8 File).

Bottom Line: The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature.On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to their efficacy and convenience, alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been widely adopted as the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings. However, alcohols lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We hypothesized that sporicidal activity could be induced in alcohols through alteration of physical or chemical conditions that have been shown to degrade or allow penetration of spore coats.

Principal findings: Acidification, alkalinization, and heating of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C. difficile, and to a lesser extent Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis. The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature. On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

No MeSH data available.