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Unlocking the Sporicidal Potential of Ethanol: Induced Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions.

Nerandzic MM, Sunkesula VC, C TS, Setlow P, Donskey CJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature.On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to their efficacy and convenience, alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been widely adopted as the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings. However, alcohols lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We hypothesized that sporicidal activity could be induced in alcohols through alteration of physical or chemical conditions that have been shown to degrade or allow penetration of spore coats.

Principal findings: Acidification, alkalinization, and heating of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C. difficile, and to a lesser extent Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis. The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature. On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

No MeSH data available.


A comparison of the spore killing efficacy of ethanol acidified with organic and inorganic acids.Six log10 colony forming units (CFU) of C. difficile (VA17, VA11, and ATCC 43593) spores were exposed to 70% ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, or lactic acid and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from baseline (pH altered water) and experimental groups (pH altered ethanol). The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
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pone.0132805.g003: A comparison of the spore killing efficacy of ethanol acidified with organic and inorganic acids.Six log10 colony forming units (CFU) of C. difficile (VA17, VA11, and ATCC 43593) spores were exposed to 70% ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, or lactic acid and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from baseline (pH altered water) and experimental groups (pH altered ethanol). The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.

Mentions: The sporicidal effects were not specific to ethanol. Acidification to pH <2 also induced sporicidal activity in 1-propanol (n-propanol) and 2-propanol (isopropanol) against C. difficile spores (Fig 2, S2 File). In addition, similar results were achieved when the pH was reduced with other inorganic and organic acids, including sulfuric, lactic, and citric acids (Fig 3, S3 File). Based on microscopic appearance, there was no evidence that reductions in spore counts were attributable to spore clumping. Because ethanol is the most common alcohol used for hand sanitizers in the U.S., we focused our remaining experiments on ethanol.


Unlocking the Sporicidal Potential of Ethanol: Induced Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions.

Nerandzic MM, Sunkesula VC, C TS, Setlow P, Donskey CJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

A comparison of the spore killing efficacy of ethanol acidified with organic and inorganic acids.Six log10 colony forming units (CFU) of C. difficile (VA17, VA11, and ATCC 43593) spores were exposed to 70% ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, or lactic acid and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from baseline (pH altered water) and experimental groups (pH altered ethanol). The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4503543&req=5

pone.0132805.g003: A comparison of the spore killing efficacy of ethanol acidified with organic and inorganic acids.Six log10 colony forming units (CFU) of C. difficile (VA17, VA11, and ATCC 43593) spores were exposed to 70% ethanol adjusted to pH 1.5 with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid, or lactic acid and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. Log10CFU reduction of spores was determined by calculating the difference in log10CFU recovered from baseline (pH altered water) and experimental groups (pH altered ethanol). The means of the data from experiments conducted in triplicate are presented. Error bars indicate standard error.
Mentions: The sporicidal effects were not specific to ethanol. Acidification to pH <2 also induced sporicidal activity in 1-propanol (n-propanol) and 2-propanol (isopropanol) against C. difficile spores (Fig 2, S2 File). In addition, similar results were achieved when the pH was reduced with other inorganic and organic acids, including sulfuric, lactic, and citric acids (Fig 3, S3 File). Based on microscopic appearance, there was no evidence that reductions in spore counts were attributable to spore clumping. Because ethanol is the most common alcohol used for hand sanitizers in the U.S., we focused our remaining experiments on ethanol.

Bottom Line: The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature.On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to their efficacy and convenience, alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been widely adopted as the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings. However, alcohols lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We hypothesized that sporicidal activity could be induced in alcohols through alteration of physical or chemical conditions that have been shown to degrade or allow penetration of spore coats.

Principal findings: Acidification, alkalinization, and heating of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C. difficile, and to a lesser extent Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis. The sporicidal activity of acidified ethanol was enhanced by increasing ionic strength and mild elevations in temperature. On skin, sporicidal ethanol formulations were as effective as soap and water hand washing in reducing levels of C. difficile spores.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that novel ethanol-based sporicidal hand hygiene formulations can be developed through alteration of physical and chemical conditions.

No MeSH data available.