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Up in Arms: Immune and Nervous System Response to Sea Star Wasting Disease.

Fuess LE, Eisenlord ME, Closek CJ, Tracy AM, Mauntz R, Gignoux-Wolfsohn S, Moritsch MM, Yoshioka R, Burge CA, Harvell CD, Friedman CS, Hewson I, Hershberger PK, Roberts SB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity.Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses.A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013-2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immune related pathways heatmaps.Heatmaps of immune-related differentially expressed transcripts between control and treated sea stars. Heatmaps are subdivided by related pathway (a) Arachidonic acid metabolism (b) Complement cascade (c) Toll-mediated pathways. Increased expression is shown in red and decreased expression is shown in blue.
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pone.0133053.g003: Immune related pathways heatmaps.Heatmaps of immune-related differentially expressed transcripts between control and treated sea stars. Heatmaps are subdivided by related pathway (a) Arachidonic acid metabolism (b) Complement cascade (c) Toll-mediated pathways. Increased expression is shown in red and decreased expression is shown in blue.

Mentions: Heatmaps of contigs that mapped to genes associated with known immune pathways (Fig 3) and nervous system growth and organization (Fig 4) showed a strong response of the treated sea stars to the viral pathogen. Overall gene expression was higher in treated relative to the control sea stars. Additionally, variation in responses among individual sea stars was also observed. One treated star (Treated_FH) had much higher expression of many of these contigs than the other two treated sea stars. A careful look at the background, collection site, viral load and time course of response did not reveal anything anomalous about this star (Treated_FH). Fold change information and p-values for all contigs can be found in S1 Table.


Up in Arms: Immune and Nervous System Response to Sea Star Wasting Disease.

Fuess LE, Eisenlord ME, Closek CJ, Tracy AM, Mauntz R, Gignoux-Wolfsohn S, Moritsch MM, Yoshioka R, Burge CA, Harvell CD, Friedman CS, Hewson I, Hershberger PK, Roberts SB - PLoS ONE (2015)

Immune related pathways heatmaps.Heatmaps of immune-related differentially expressed transcripts between control and treated sea stars. Heatmaps are subdivided by related pathway (a) Arachidonic acid metabolism (b) Complement cascade (c) Toll-mediated pathways. Increased expression is shown in red and decreased expression is shown in blue.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4503460&req=5

pone.0133053.g003: Immune related pathways heatmaps.Heatmaps of immune-related differentially expressed transcripts between control and treated sea stars. Heatmaps are subdivided by related pathway (a) Arachidonic acid metabolism (b) Complement cascade (c) Toll-mediated pathways. Increased expression is shown in red and decreased expression is shown in blue.
Mentions: Heatmaps of contigs that mapped to genes associated with known immune pathways (Fig 3) and nervous system growth and organization (Fig 4) showed a strong response of the treated sea stars to the viral pathogen. Overall gene expression was higher in treated relative to the control sea stars. Additionally, variation in responses among individual sea stars was also observed. One treated star (Treated_FH) had much higher expression of many of these contigs than the other two treated sea stars. A careful look at the background, collection site, viral load and time course of response did not reveal anything anomalous about this star (Treated_FH). Fold change information and p-values for all contigs can be found in S1 Table.

Bottom Line: However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity.Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses.A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013-2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus