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Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

Zhang P, Howell K, Krstic M, Herderich M, Barlow EW, Fuentes S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information.Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons.This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agriculture & Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management strategies to effectively mitigate adverse impacts related to climate change and microclimatic variability, such as heat waves, within a vineyard on wine quality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Half-hourly temperature data (clear circles) estimated from AWAP daily maximum/minimum temperature data (black-filled circles) using the simulated temperature model (STM) for selected days from the 1995–96 growing season.
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pone.0133137.g001: Half-hourly temperature data (clear circles) estimated from AWAP daily maximum/minimum temperature data (black-filled circles) using the simulated temperature model (STM) for selected days from the 1995–96 growing season.

Mentions: Temperatures from veraison to harvest were estimated at half-hourly intervals using the STM proposed for all growing seasons studied. The AWAP temperature data and predicted half-hourly temperatures from STM were plotted against time (Fig 1). Vineyard thermal time was calculated as degree hours using the data obtained from STM following the established protocol [27], which represents the heat-hours accumulated in the vineyard (S3 Table). Percentage of degree hours above 35°C (DH35), above 30°C (DH30) and above 25°C (DH25) from the total degree hours were calculated using a customised code written in MatLab ver. 2014a (The MathWorks, Inc. Matick. MA. USA) (S3 Table). Cumulative growing degree days from veraison to harvest (DDvh) were calculated by dividing degree hours higher than 10°C by 24 (S3 Table) [22].


Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

Zhang P, Howell K, Krstic M, Herderich M, Barlow EW, Fuentes S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Half-hourly temperature data (clear circles) estimated from AWAP daily maximum/minimum temperature data (black-filled circles) using the simulated temperature model (STM) for selected days from the 1995–96 growing season.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4503395&req=5

pone.0133137.g001: Half-hourly temperature data (clear circles) estimated from AWAP daily maximum/minimum temperature data (black-filled circles) using the simulated temperature model (STM) for selected days from the 1995–96 growing season.
Mentions: Temperatures from veraison to harvest were estimated at half-hourly intervals using the STM proposed for all growing seasons studied. The AWAP temperature data and predicted half-hourly temperatures from STM were plotted against time (Fig 1). Vineyard thermal time was calculated as degree hours using the data obtained from STM following the established protocol [27], which represents the heat-hours accumulated in the vineyard (S3 Table). Percentage of degree hours above 35°C (DH35), above 30°C (DH30) and above 25°C (DH25) from the total degree hours were calculated using a customised code written in MatLab ver. 2014a (The MathWorks, Inc. Matick. MA. USA) (S3 Table). Cumulative growing degree days from veraison to harvest (DDvh) were calculated by dividing degree hours higher than 10°C by 24 (S3 Table) [22].

Bottom Line: For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information.Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons.This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agriculture & Food Systems, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management strategies to effectively mitigate adverse impacts related to climate change and microclimatic variability, such as heat waves, within a vineyard on wine quality.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus