Limits...
Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Blue triangles identify locations where prevalence was reduced by at least 1 standard error (SE) per year. Green squares identify locations where there was little change in prevalence (i.e., change of less than 1 SE per year). Red triangles identify locations where prevalence increased by at least 1 SE per year. Reused with permission from Elsevier [141]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499913&req=5

Fig4: Blue triangles identify locations where prevalence was reduced by at least 1 standard error (SE) per year. Green squares identify locations where there was little change in prevalence (i.e., change of less than 1 SE per year). Red triangles identify locations where prevalence increased by at least 1 SE per year. Reused with permission from Elsevier [141]

Mentions: All of this information confirms that asthma and allergic sensitization are becoming more prevalent in many African countries and that this upward trend is mainly related to sensitization to house dust mite, tobacco smoking, and living in urban affluent westernized locations. The high prevalence of severe asthma found in Africa in the ISAAC study (Fig. 4) suggests that limitations in getting access to care, as well as the availability and affordability of medications, can contribute to severe forms associated with non-treated patients, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). A better socio-economic situation could help to treat those non-treated patients and decrease the severity of asthma and allergy [248, 249].Fig. 4


Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Blue triangles identify locations where prevalence was reduced by at least 1 standard error (SE) per year. Green squares identify locations where there was little change in prevalence (i.e., change of less than 1 SE per year). Red triangles identify locations where prevalence increased by at least 1 SE per year. Reused with permission from Elsevier [141]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499913&req=5

Fig4: Blue triangles identify locations where prevalence was reduced by at least 1 standard error (SE) per year. Green squares identify locations where there was little change in prevalence (i.e., change of less than 1 SE per year). Red triangles identify locations where prevalence increased by at least 1 SE per year. Reused with permission from Elsevier [141]
Mentions: All of this information confirms that asthma and allergic sensitization are becoming more prevalent in many African countries and that this upward trend is mainly related to sensitization to house dust mite, tobacco smoking, and living in urban affluent westernized locations. The high prevalence of severe asthma found in Africa in the ISAAC study (Fig. 4) suggests that limitations in getting access to care, as well as the availability and affordability of medications, can contribute to severe forms associated with non-treated patients, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). A better socio-economic situation could help to treat those non-treated patients and decrease the severity of asthma and allergy [248, 249].Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus