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Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Possible effects of climate change on respiratory allergy. Source: Lorenzo Cecchi, original drawing
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Fig3: Possible effects of climate change on respiratory allergy. Source: Lorenzo Cecchi, original drawing

Mentions: Finally, trends of worldwide asthma prevalence are still unclear, being different in developing and in industrialized countries. Epidemiologic studies show that air pollution has a negative effect on lung development, potentially explaining the association of pollution on the greater prevalence of asthma in urban environments [70, 159, 175–179, 182, 183]. The influence of climate change on symptoms of respiratory allergy is still unpredictable. Two opposite effects could be relevant. On one hand, global warming could increase length and severity of pollen season and, as a consequence, of pollen allergy. Moreover, the increase in occurrence of heavy precipitation events, as predicted by recent climate change scenarios, could make episodes of asthma epidemics more frequent. Finally, overall effects on health-related air pollutants seem favorable to an increase of urban air pollution episodes. On the other hand, increase of Earth’s temperature could reduce the effects of cold air on asthma and rhinitis, also making patients less susceptible to upper respiratory infections (Fig. 3).Fig. 3


Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Possible effects of climate change on respiratory allergy. Source: Lorenzo Cecchi, original drawing
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499913&req=5

Fig3: Possible effects of climate change on respiratory allergy. Source: Lorenzo Cecchi, original drawing
Mentions: Finally, trends of worldwide asthma prevalence are still unclear, being different in developing and in industrialized countries. Epidemiologic studies show that air pollution has a negative effect on lung development, potentially explaining the association of pollution on the greater prevalence of asthma in urban environments [70, 159, 175–179, 182, 183]. The influence of climate change on symptoms of respiratory allergy is still unpredictable. Two opposite effects could be relevant. On one hand, global warming could increase length and severity of pollen season and, as a consequence, of pollen allergy. Moreover, the increase in occurrence of heavy precipitation events, as predicted by recent climate change scenarios, could make episodes of asthma epidemics more frequent. Finally, overall effects on health-related air pollutants seem favorable to an increase of urban air pollution episodes. On the other hand, increase of Earth’s temperature could reduce the effects of cold air on asthma and rhinitis, also making patients less susceptible to upper respiratory infections (Fig. 3).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus