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Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chart showing the relation between airborne pollen concentrations and the arrival of the thunderstorm outflow in Wagga Wagga (Australia). Closed circles represent intact pollen grains. Open circles represent empty pollen husks. The data are plotted at the midpoint of the hour over which the concentrations have been measured. Data for wind speed, wind direction, and rainfall were recorded each minute by analogue chart recorder and have been scanned into the figure. The vertical dashed line represents the time at which the first ambulance call, seeking assistance for an attack of asthma, was received in Wagga Wagga. Examination of the recorded radar images (not shown) reveals that the line of the thunderstorms arrived at the site of the Burkard trap about 10 min before it reached the AWS. Reproduced with permission from BMJ Publishing Group Ltd [64]
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig1: Chart showing the relation between airborne pollen concentrations and the arrival of the thunderstorm outflow in Wagga Wagga (Australia). Closed circles represent intact pollen grains. Open circles represent empty pollen husks. The data are plotted at the midpoint of the hour over which the concentrations have been measured. Data for wind speed, wind direction, and rainfall were recorded each minute by analogue chart recorder and have been scanned into the figure. The vertical dashed line represents the time at which the first ambulance call, seeking assistance for an attack of asthma, was received in Wagga Wagga. Examination of the recorded radar images (not shown) reveals that the line of the thunderstorms arrived at the site of the Burkard trap about 10 min before it reached the AWS. Reproduced with permission from BMJ Publishing Group Ltd [64]

Mentions: Other asthma outbreaks during thunderstorms were described in Melbourne (Australia) [53], where two large asthma outbreaks coincided with thunderstorms. These events also were followed by a rapid increase in hospital or general practitioner visits for asthma. Taking into account the Melbourne experience, a similar mechanism could have been involved, although other factors may have also contributed. Further asthma outbreaks occurred in Wagga Wagga (Australia) on 30 October 1997 [63] and in Naples (Italy) on 4 June 2004 [65]. In Wagga-Wagga 215 asthmatic subjects attended the local emergency department, 41 of whom required admission to hospital. Marks et al. [64] demonstrated that the arrival of a thunderstorm outflow was accompanied by a large increase in the concentration of ruptured pollen grains in ambient air. It seems likely that the outflow of air from the upper thunderstorm cell, rather than electrical activity, thunder or rain alone, is responsible for the observed event (Fig. 1). Furthermore, 96 % of affected individuals had positive skin prick tests to rye grass pollen, compared with 64 % of other patients with asthma (adjusted odds ratio 23.0, 95 % confidence interval 6.6 to 84.3), and 90 % of thunderstorm cases reported recent hay fever symptoms compared with 69 % of other patients with asthma [63]. During the episode of thunderstorm-associated asthma registered in Naples on 4 June 2004 (between 1.30 and 2.00 am), 6 adults (3 women and 3 men between 28 and 60 years old) and a girl of 11 years had attacks of severe asthma, which in one case was nearly fatal. All patients received treatment in Emergency Departments and one was admitted to an intensive care unit for very severe bronchial obstruction and acute respiratory insufficiency. All individuals were outdoors when the thunderstorm struck. All seven patients were sensitized with allergic respiratory symptoms upon exposure to Parietaria pollen but were not sensitized to grasses [65]. Parietaria is an Urticacea that is widespread in the Naples area with a spring and summer pollen season, in part contemporaneous with that of grasses [68–70, 80]. During the thunderstorm, the concentration of airborne Parietaria pollen grains was particularly high with a peak of 144 grains/m3 being recorded on 3 June 2004 [65, 81].Fig. 1


Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization.

D'Amato G, Holgate ST, Pawankar R, Ledford DK, Cecchi L, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Enezi F, Al-Muhsen S, Ansotegui I, Baena-Cagnani CE, Baker DJ, Bayram H, Bergmann KC, Boulet LP, Buters JT, D'Amato M, Dorsano S, Douwes J, Finlay SE, Garrasi D, Gómez M, Haahtela T, Halwani R, Hassani Y, Mahboub B, Marks G, Michelozzi P, Montagni M, Nunes C, Oh JJ, Popov TA, Portnoy J, Ridolo E, Rosário N, Rottem M, Sánchez-Borges M, Sibanda E, Sienra-Monge JJ, Vitale C, Annesi-Maesano I - World Allergy Organ J (2015)

Chart showing the relation between airborne pollen concentrations and the arrival of the thunderstorm outflow in Wagga Wagga (Australia). Closed circles represent intact pollen grains. Open circles represent empty pollen husks. The data are plotted at the midpoint of the hour over which the concentrations have been measured. Data for wind speed, wind direction, and rainfall were recorded each minute by analogue chart recorder and have been scanned into the figure. The vertical dashed line represents the time at which the first ambulance call, seeking assistance for an attack of asthma, was received in Wagga Wagga. Examination of the recorded radar images (not shown) reveals that the line of the thunderstorms arrived at the site of the Burkard trap about 10 min before it reached the AWS. Reproduced with permission from BMJ Publishing Group Ltd [64]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499913&req=5

Fig1: Chart showing the relation between airborne pollen concentrations and the arrival of the thunderstorm outflow in Wagga Wagga (Australia). Closed circles represent intact pollen grains. Open circles represent empty pollen husks. The data are plotted at the midpoint of the hour over which the concentrations have been measured. Data for wind speed, wind direction, and rainfall were recorded each minute by analogue chart recorder and have been scanned into the figure. The vertical dashed line represents the time at which the first ambulance call, seeking assistance for an attack of asthma, was received in Wagga Wagga. Examination of the recorded radar images (not shown) reveals that the line of the thunderstorms arrived at the site of the Burkard trap about 10 min before it reached the AWS. Reproduced with permission from BMJ Publishing Group Ltd [64]
Mentions: Other asthma outbreaks during thunderstorms were described in Melbourne (Australia) [53], where two large asthma outbreaks coincided with thunderstorms. These events also were followed by a rapid increase in hospital or general practitioner visits for asthma. Taking into account the Melbourne experience, a similar mechanism could have been involved, although other factors may have also contributed. Further asthma outbreaks occurred in Wagga Wagga (Australia) on 30 October 1997 [63] and in Naples (Italy) on 4 June 2004 [65]. In Wagga-Wagga 215 asthmatic subjects attended the local emergency department, 41 of whom required admission to hospital. Marks et al. [64] demonstrated that the arrival of a thunderstorm outflow was accompanied by a large increase in the concentration of ruptured pollen grains in ambient air. It seems likely that the outflow of air from the upper thunderstorm cell, rather than electrical activity, thunder or rain alone, is responsible for the observed event (Fig. 1). Furthermore, 96 % of affected individuals had positive skin prick tests to rye grass pollen, compared with 64 % of other patients with asthma (adjusted odds ratio 23.0, 95 % confidence interval 6.6 to 84.3), and 90 % of thunderstorm cases reported recent hay fever symptoms compared with 69 % of other patients with asthma [63]. During the episode of thunderstorm-associated asthma registered in Naples on 4 June 2004 (between 1.30 and 2.00 am), 6 adults (3 women and 3 men between 28 and 60 years old) and a girl of 11 years had attacks of severe asthma, which in one case was nearly fatal. All patients received treatment in Emergency Departments and one was admitted to an intensive care unit for very severe bronchial obstruction and acute respiratory insufficiency. All individuals were outdoors when the thunderstorm struck. All seven patients were sensitized with allergic respiratory symptoms upon exposure to Parietaria pollen but were not sensitized to grasses [65]. Parietaria is an Urticacea that is widespread in the Naples area with a spring and summer pollen season, in part contemporaneous with that of grasses [68–70, 80]. During the thunderstorm, the concentration of airborne Parietaria pollen grains was particularly high with a peak of 144 grains/m3 being recorded on 3 June 2004 [65, 81].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes.Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges.The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Diseases, Division of Pneumology and Allergology, High Specialty Hospital "A. Cardarelli" Napoli, Italy, University of Naples Medical School, Via Rione Sirignano, 10, 80121 Napoli, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of allergic airway diseases such as asthma and rhinitis has increased dramatically to epidemic proportions worldwide. Besides air pollution from industry derived emissions and motor vehicles, the rising trend can only be explained by gross changes in the environments where we live. The world economy has been transformed over the last 25 years with developing countries being at the core of these changes. Around the planet, in both developed and developing countries, environments are undergoing profound changes. Many of these changes are considered to have negative effects on respiratory health and to enhance the frequency and severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma in the general population. Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere have already warmed the planet substantially, causing more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods - all of which can put the respiratory health of the public at risk. These changes in climate and air quality have a measurable impact not only on the morbidity but also the mortality of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. The massive increase in emissions of air pollutants due to economic and industrial growth in the last century has made air quality an environmental problem of the first order in a large number of regions of the world. A body of evidence suggests that major changes to our world are occurring and involve the atmosphere and its associated climate. These changes, including global warming induced by human activity, have an impact on the biosphere, biodiversity, and the human environment. Mitigating this huge health impact and reversing the effects of these changes are major challenges. This statement of the World Allergy Organization (WAO) raises the importance of this health hazard and highlights the facts on climate-related health impacts, including: deaths and acute morbidity due to heat waves and extreme meteorological events; increased frequency of acute cardio-respiratory events due to higher concentrations of ground level ozone; changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases due to trans-boundary particle pollution; altered spatial and temporal distribution of allergens (pollens, molds, and mites); and some infectious disease vectors. According to this report, these impacts will not only affect those with current asthma but also increase the incidence and prevalence of allergic respiratory conditions and of asthma. The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still not well defined, and more studies addressing this topic are needed. Global warming is expected to affect the start, duration, and intensity of the pollen season on the one hand, and the rate of asthma exacerbations due to air pollution, respiratory infections, and/or cold air inhalation, and other conditions on the other hand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus