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Wnt affects symmetry and morphogenesis during post-embryonic development in colonial chordates.

Di Maio A, Setar L, Tiozzo S, De Tomaso AW - Evodevo (2015)

Bottom Line: Modulation of the Wnt signaling in either process has shown to result in unusual body axis phenotypes.Chemical manipulation of the pathway resulted in atypical budding due to the duplication of the A/P axes, supernumerary budding, and loss of the overall cell apical-basal polarity.Our results suggest that Wnt signaling is used for equivalent developmental processes both during embryogenesis and asexual development in an adult organism, suggesting that patterning mechanisms driving morphogenesis are conserved, independent of embryonic, or regenerative development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B19 2TT UK ; Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wnt signaling is one of the earliest and most highly conserved regulatory pathways for the establishment of the body axes during regeneration and early development. In regeneration, body axes determination occurs independently of tissue rearrangement and early developmental cues. Modulation of the Wnt signaling in either process has shown to result in unusual body axis phenotypes. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial ascidian that can regenerate its entire body through asexual budding. This processes leads to an adult body via a stereotypical developmental pathway (called blastogenesis), without proceeding through any embryonic developmental stages.

Results: In this study, we describe the role of the canonical Wnt pathway during the early stages of asexual development. We characterized expression of three Wnt ligands (Wnt2B, Wnt5A, and Wnt9A) by in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR. Chemical manipulation of the pathway resulted in atypical budding due to the duplication of the A/P axes, supernumerary budding, and loss of the overall cell apical-basal polarity.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that Wnt signaling is used for equivalent developmental processes both during embryogenesis and asexual development in an adult organism, suggesting that patterning mechanisms driving morphogenesis are conserved, independent of embryonic, or regenerative development.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic characterization of four Botryllus schlosseri Wnt genes. Bayesian consensus tree of Wnt amino acid sequences constructed as described in the ‘Methods’ section. B. schlosseri genes considered are highlighted in bold red whereas clusters with other orthologues are colored (wnt7 = orange; wnt5A = green; wnt2B = yellow; wnt9A = blue). The tree has been rooted on its midpoint, percentage of posterior probability is showed at every node. Amphi: Branchiostoma floridae, Che: Clytia haemispherica, MM: Mus musculus, Pdu: Platynereis dumerilii, Ame: Apis mellifera, Nv: Nemastostella vectensis, Hv: Hydra vulgaris, Ci Ciona intestinalis, Bs: Botryllus schlosseri.
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Fig1: Phylogenetic characterization of four Botryllus schlosseri Wnt genes. Bayesian consensus tree of Wnt amino acid sequences constructed as described in the ‘Methods’ section. B. schlosseri genes considered are highlighted in bold red whereas clusters with other orthologues are colored (wnt7 = orange; wnt5A = green; wnt2B = yellow; wnt9A = blue). The tree has been rooted on its midpoint, percentage of posterior probability is showed at every node. Amphi: Branchiostoma floridae, Che: Clytia haemispherica, MM: Mus musculus, Pdu: Platynereis dumerilii, Ame: Apis mellifera, Nv: Nemastostella vectensis, Hv: Hydra vulgaris, Ci Ciona intestinalis, Bs: Botryllus schlosseri.

Mentions: Multiple sequence alignments were built using MUSCLE [42], and conserved blocks have been selected using GBLOCK and trimmed manually. Bayesian trees were built via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method by using MRBAYES [43], adopting a Jones-Taylor-Thorton (JTT) mathematical method substitution matrix. Two Markov chains were run each containing 20,000,000 Monte Carlo steps. One out of every 100 trees was saved. The trees obtained on each run were meshed, and the first 25% were discarded as burn-in. Marginal probabilities for internal branches were taken as measures of statistical support. Only the consensus tree is shown in Figure 1. All the trees are available upon request.Figure 1


Wnt affects symmetry and morphogenesis during post-embryonic development in colonial chordates.

Di Maio A, Setar L, Tiozzo S, De Tomaso AW - Evodevo (2015)

Phylogenetic characterization of four Botryllus schlosseri Wnt genes. Bayesian consensus tree of Wnt amino acid sequences constructed as described in the ‘Methods’ section. B. schlosseri genes considered are highlighted in bold red whereas clusters with other orthologues are colored (wnt7 = orange; wnt5A = green; wnt2B = yellow; wnt9A = blue). The tree has been rooted on its midpoint, percentage of posterior probability is showed at every node. Amphi: Branchiostoma floridae, Che: Clytia haemispherica, MM: Mus musculus, Pdu: Platynereis dumerilii, Ame: Apis mellifera, Nv: Nemastostella vectensis, Hv: Hydra vulgaris, Ci Ciona intestinalis, Bs: Botryllus schlosseri.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499891&req=5

Fig1: Phylogenetic characterization of four Botryllus schlosseri Wnt genes. Bayesian consensus tree of Wnt amino acid sequences constructed as described in the ‘Methods’ section. B. schlosseri genes considered are highlighted in bold red whereas clusters with other orthologues are colored (wnt7 = orange; wnt5A = green; wnt2B = yellow; wnt9A = blue). The tree has been rooted on its midpoint, percentage of posterior probability is showed at every node. Amphi: Branchiostoma floridae, Che: Clytia haemispherica, MM: Mus musculus, Pdu: Platynereis dumerilii, Ame: Apis mellifera, Nv: Nemastostella vectensis, Hv: Hydra vulgaris, Ci Ciona intestinalis, Bs: Botryllus schlosseri.
Mentions: Multiple sequence alignments were built using MUSCLE [42], and conserved blocks have been selected using GBLOCK and trimmed manually. Bayesian trees were built via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method by using MRBAYES [43], adopting a Jones-Taylor-Thorton (JTT) mathematical method substitution matrix. Two Markov chains were run each containing 20,000,000 Monte Carlo steps. One out of every 100 trees was saved. The trees obtained on each run were meshed, and the first 25% were discarded as burn-in. Marginal probabilities for internal branches were taken as measures of statistical support. Only the consensus tree is shown in Figure 1. All the trees are available upon request.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Modulation of the Wnt signaling in either process has shown to result in unusual body axis phenotypes.Chemical manipulation of the pathway resulted in atypical budding due to the duplication of the A/P axes, supernumerary budding, and loss of the overall cell apical-basal polarity.Our results suggest that Wnt signaling is used for equivalent developmental processes both during embryogenesis and asexual development in an adult organism, suggesting that patterning mechanisms driving morphogenesis are conserved, independent of embryonic, or regenerative development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B19 2TT UK ; Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wnt signaling is one of the earliest and most highly conserved regulatory pathways for the establishment of the body axes during regeneration and early development. In regeneration, body axes determination occurs independently of tissue rearrangement and early developmental cues. Modulation of the Wnt signaling in either process has shown to result in unusual body axis phenotypes. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial ascidian that can regenerate its entire body through asexual budding. This processes leads to an adult body via a stereotypical developmental pathway (called blastogenesis), without proceeding through any embryonic developmental stages.

Results: In this study, we describe the role of the canonical Wnt pathway during the early stages of asexual development. We characterized expression of three Wnt ligands (Wnt2B, Wnt5A, and Wnt9A) by in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR. Chemical manipulation of the pathway resulted in atypical budding due to the duplication of the A/P axes, supernumerary budding, and loss of the overall cell apical-basal polarity.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that Wnt signaling is used for equivalent developmental processes both during embryogenesis and asexual development in an adult organism, suggesting that patterning mechanisms driving morphogenesis are conserved, independent of embryonic, or regenerative development.

No MeSH data available.