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Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial distributions (as annual average emissions) of anthropogenic(A) and biogenic (B) benzenoids. Biogenic benzenoid emissions are expected in remote areas where anthropogenic pollution (NOx) is lower so undergoes different oxidation and yields of SOA. Anthropogenic data were taken from RETRO 2000 and the biogenic distribution was calculated using MEGAN 2.1. Maps were created using ArcGIS software by ESRI (Environmental Systems Resource Institute, ArcMap 10.2, (www.esri.com)).
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f4: Spatial distributions (as annual average emissions) of anthropogenic(A) and biogenic (B) benzenoids. Biogenic benzenoid emissions are expected in remote areas where anthropogenic pollution (NOx) is lower so undergoes different oxidation and yields of SOA. Anthropogenic data were taken from RETRO 2000 and the biogenic distribution was calculated using MEGAN 2.1. Maps were created using ArcGIS software by ESRI (Environmental Systems Resource Institute, ArcMap 10.2, (www.esri.com)).

Mentions: On the basis of our laboratory and field observations, we derive new benzenoid compound specific and ecosystem specific emission factors, shown in Table 1, for use in the MEGAN model38 of emissions of trace gases from nature. We then use MEGAN to estimate the global emission rates for these compounds, as shown in Fig. 4. Table 1 also shows possible drivers (floral, stress, etc.), the probable emission ranges for some of these compounds based on the present study, and their SOA formation estimates. We estimate total global biogenic emissions of toluene, benzene, xylene and other benzenoids to be in the range 4–40 Tg y−1, which compares with the current best estimate of anthropogenic benzenoid emissions of ~24 Tg y−1. From this, we estimate the global production rate of SOA from these biogenic benzenoid emissions to be 1.4–15 Tg y−1, compared with 2–12 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic benzenoid emissions.


Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Spatial distributions (as annual average emissions) of anthropogenic(A) and biogenic (B) benzenoids. Biogenic benzenoid emissions are expected in remote areas where anthropogenic pollution (NOx) is lower so undergoes different oxidation and yields of SOA. Anthropogenic data were taken from RETRO 2000 and the biogenic distribution was calculated using MEGAN 2.1. Maps were created using ArcGIS software by ESRI (Environmental Systems Resource Institute, ArcMap 10.2, (www.esri.com)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499884&req=5

f4: Spatial distributions (as annual average emissions) of anthropogenic(A) and biogenic (B) benzenoids. Biogenic benzenoid emissions are expected in remote areas where anthropogenic pollution (NOx) is lower so undergoes different oxidation and yields of SOA. Anthropogenic data were taken from RETRO 2000 and the biogenic distribution was calculated using MEGAN 2.1. Maps were created using ArcGIS software by ESRI (Environmental Systems Resource Institute, ArcMap 10.2, (www.esri.com)).
Mentions: On the basis of our laboratory and field observations, we derive new benzenoid compound specific and ecosystem specific emission factors, shown in Table 1, for use in the MEGAN model38 of emissions of trace gases from nature. We then use MEGAN to estimate the global emission rates for these compounds, as shown in Fig. 4. Table 1 also shows possible drivers (floral, stress, etc.), the probable emission ranges for some of these compounds based on the present study, and their SOA formation estimates. We estimate total global biogenic emissions of toluene, benzene, xylene and other benzenoids to be in the range 4–40 Tg y−1, which compares with the current best estimate of anthropogenic benzenoid emissions of ~24 Tg y−1. From this, we estimate the global production rate of SOA from these biogenic benzenoid emissions to be 1.4–15 Tg y−1, compared with 2–12 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic benzenoid emissions.

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus