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Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Field observations of concentrations point to the biogenic origin of benzenoid compounds.A) Gas-phase and particle phase observed benzenoids (other than toluene) at Blodgett forest during BEARPEX 2007; Methoxybenzaldehyde (particle) is oxidation product of estragole (gas). B) Concentrations of toluene above different vegetation canopies show consistent diurnal patterns with clear nocturnal accumulation when turbulence is low. The data were obtained with a range of analytical approaches, each of which is discussed in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
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f2: Field observations of concentrations point to the biogenic origin of benzenoid compounds.A) Gas-phase and particle phase observed benzenoids (other than toluene) at Blodgett forest during BEARPEX 2007; Methoxybenzaldehyde (particle) is oxidation product of estragole (gas). B) Concentrations of toluene above different vegetation canopies show consistent diurnal patterns with clear nocturnal accumulation when turbulence is low. The data were obtained with a range of analytical approaches, each of which is discussed in the Supplementary Methods (S2).

Mentions: Figure 2A shows the concentrations of both gas-phase and particle-phase benzenoids made above a ponderosa pine canopy41. Factor analysis suggests that some of these compounds originate from a direct biogenic source or result from the oxidation of estragole (methyl chavicol). Two types of potential biogenic benzenoid source markers with different diurnal patterns are observed.


Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Field observations of concentrations point to the biogenic origin of benzenoid compounds.A) Gas-phase and particle phase observed benzenoids (other than toluene) at Blodgett forest during BEARPEX 2007; Methoxybenzaldehyde (particle) is oxidation product of estragole (gas). B) Concentrations of toluene above different vegetation canopies show consistent diurnal patterns with clear nocturnal accumulation when turbulence is low. The data were obtained with a range of analytical approaches, each of which is discussed in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499884&req=5

f2: Field observations of concentrations point to the biogenic origin of benzenoid compounds.A) Gas-phase and particle phase observed benzenoids (other than toluene) at Blodgett forest during BEARPEX 2007; Methoxybenzaldehyde (particle) is oxidation product of estragole (gas). B) Concentrations of toluene above different vegetation canopies show consistent diurnal patterns with clear nocturnal accumulation when turbulence is low. The data were obtained with a range of analytical approaches, each of which is discussed in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
Mentions: Figure 2A shows the concentrations of both gas-phase and particle-phase benzenoids made above a ponderosa pine canopy41. Factor analysis suggests that some of these compounds originate from a direct biogenic source or result from the oxidation of estragole (methyl chavicol). Two types of potential biogenic benzenoid source markers with different diurnal patterns are observed.

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus