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Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Laboratory studies reveal benzenoid compounds emitted from plants in response to stresses.A) Emission rates of seven benzenoid compounds emitted from Populus balsamifera in response to heat stress (left) and spider mite stress followed by heat stress (right). B) Heat-stress induced benzenoids from the Jülich controlled environment plant chamber containing three tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula); C) Benzenoids from Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx. induced by larvae-feeding stress. Detailed descriptions of measurements can be found in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
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f1: Laboratory studies reveal benzenoid compounds emitted from plants in response to stresses.A) Emission rates of seven benzenoid compounds emitted from Populus balsamifera in response to heat stress (left) and spider mite stress followed by heat stress (right). B) Heat-stress induced benzenoids from the Jülich controlled environment plant chamber containing three tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula); C) Benzenoids from Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx. induced by larvae-feeding stress. Detailed descriptions of measurements can be found in the Supplementary Methods (S2).

Mentions: In order to understand whether or not benzenoid emissions from plants are related to abiotic stress, we conducted a number of laboratory heat and herbivore stress experiments (Fig. 1; see also Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 3). Initial stress treatments of Populus balsamifera, which involved wounding, application of methyl jasmonate, fumigation with ethylene and fumigation with nitrogen oxide did not yield any significant benzenoid emissions, with the exception of a plant that was infested with spider mites. When plants were heat-stressed, however, we observed a wide range of aromatics released by leaves.


Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

Misztal PK, Hewitt CN, Wildt J, Blande JD, Eller AS, Fares S, Gentner DR, Gilman JB, Graus M, Greenberg J, Guenther AB, Hansel A, Harley P, Huang M, Jardine K, Karl T, Kaser L, Keutsch FN, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Lerner BM, Li T, Mak J, Nölscher AC, Schnitzhofer R, Sinha V, Thornton B, Warneke C, Wegener F, Werner C, Williams J, Worton DR, Yassaa N, Goldstein AH - Sci Rep (2015)

Laboratory studies reveal benzenoid compounds emitted from plants in response to stresses.A) Emission rates of seven benzenoid compounds emitted from Populus balsamifera in response to heat stress (left) and spider mite stress followed by heat stress (right). B) Heat-stress induced benzenoids from the Jülich controlled environment plant chamber containing three tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula); C) Benzenoids from Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx. induced by larvae-feeding stress. Detailed descriptions of measurements can be found in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499884&req=5

f1: Laboratory studies reveal benzenoid compounds emitted from plants in response to stresses.A) Emission rates of seven benzenoid compounds emitted from Populus balsamifera in response to heat stress (left) and spider mite stress followed by heat stress (right). B) Heat-stress induced benzenoids from the Jülich controlled environment plant chamber containing three tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula); C) Benzenoids from Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx. induced by larvae-feeding stress. Detailed descriptions of measurements can be found in the Supplementary Methods (S2).
Mentions: In order to understand whether or not benzenoid emissions from plants are related to abiotic stress, we conducted a number of laboratory heat and herbivore stress experiments (Fig. 1; see also Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 3). Initial stress treatments of Populus balsamifera, which involved wounding, application of methyl jasmonate, fumigation with ethylene and fumigation with nitrogen oxide did not yield any significant benzenoid emissions, with the exception of a plant that was infested with spider mites. When plants were heat-stressed, however, we observed a wide range of aromatics released by leaves.

Bottom Line: Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions.The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress.We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] University of California Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA [2] National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.

ABSTRACT
Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus