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Ultra-high-resolution 3D imaging of atherosclerosis in mice with synchrotron differential phase contrast: a proof of concept study.

Bonanno G, Coppo S, Modregger P, Pellegrin M, Stuber A, Stampanoni M, Mazzolai L, Stuber M, van Heeswijk RB - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The DPC imaging allowed for the visualization of complex structures such as the coronary arteries and their branches, the thin fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the chordae tendineae.The coronary vessel wall thickness ranged from 37.4 ± 5.6 μm in proximal coronary arteries to 13.6 ± 3.3 μm in distal branches.No consistent differences in coronary vessel wall thickness were detected between the wild-type and atherosclerotic hearts in this proof-of-concept study, although the standard deviation in the atherosclerotic mice was higher in most segments, consistent with the observation of occasional focal vessel wall thickening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV) and University (UNIL) of Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), Lausanne, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The goal of this study was to investigate the performance of 3D synchrotron differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging for the visualization of both macroscopic and microscopic aspects of atherosclerosis in the mouse vasculature ex vivo. The hearts and aortas of 2 atherosclerotic and 2 wild-type control mice were scanned with DPC imaging with an isotropic resolution of 15 μm. The coronary artery vessel walls were segmented in the DPC datasets to assess their thickness, and histological staining was performed at the level of atherosclerotic plaques. The DPC imaging allowed for the visualization of complex structures such as the coronary arteries and their branches, the thin fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the chordae tendineae. The coronary vessel wall thickness ranged from 37.4 ± 5.6 μm in proximal coronary arteries to 13.6 ± 3.3 μm in distal branches. No consistent differences in coronary vessel wall thickness were detected between the wild-type and atherosclerotic hearts in this proof-of-concept study, although the standard deviation in the atherosclerotic mice was higher in most segments, consistent with the observation of occasional focal vessel wall thickening. Overall, DPC imaging of the cardiovascular system of the mice allowed for a simultaneous detailed 3D morphological assessment of both large structures and microscopic details.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Vessel wall thickness of the mouse coronary arteries.(A) Segmentations of the inner (purple) and outer (blue) vessel wall of the left coronary artery system of an ApoE−/− mouse with their centerlines (black). Regions where the differentiation was unclear or where the vessel had collapsed were not segmented. The inset shows an example of the subsequent determination of the vessel wall thickness, where a gray plane perpendicular to the centerline is used to determine the distance between the inner and outer vessel wall, shown as contours. (B) The determined vessel wall thickness in the same mouse projected on top of the centerlines, with the color bar indicating the thickness in μm. While the thickness appears to decrease as the vessels advance from the root, there is a considerable variability. (C) Vessel wall thickness of the right coronary system of a WT control mouse. While several focal points of thickness can be observed, in general the vessel wall thickness appears to have less variability than those of their ApoE−/− counterparts.
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f5: Vessel wall thickness of the mouse coronary arteries.(A) Segmentations of the inner (purple) and outer (blue) vessel wall of the left coronary artery system of an ApoE−/− mouse with their centerlines (black). Regions where the differentiation was unclear or where the vessel had collapsed were not segmented. The inset shows an example of the subsequent determination of the vessel wall thickness, where a gray plane perpendicular to the centerline is used to determine the distance between the inner and outer vessel wall, shown as contours. (B) The determined vessel wall thickness in the same mouse projected on top of the centerlines, with the color bar indicating the thickness in μm. While the thickness appears to decrease as the vessels advance from the root, there is a considerable variability. (C) Vessel wall thickness of the right coronary system of a WT control mouse. While several focal points of thickness can be observed, in general the vessel wall thickness appears to have less variability than those of their ApoE−/− counterparts.

Mentions: DPC imaging provided good contrast between the coronary artery lumen, the coronary artery wall and the surrounding parenchyma (Fig. 4). The SNR of the vessel wall was 139.7 ± 2.8, the SNR of the lumen was 120.1 ± 7.3, and the SNR of the neighboring parenchyma was 134.2 ± 3.1, resulting in a vessel-wall-to-lumen CNR of 18.4 and a vessel-wall-to-parenchyma CNR of 5.5. While several plaques were observed near the ostia of the coronary arteries, no plaques were observed in more distal segments. However, focal wall thickening (Fig. 4C) was regularly observed along the coronary arteries of the atherosclerotic mice, while no such thickening was observed in the control mice. Segmentation of the coronary vessel wall was robust and resulted in detailed overviews of the distribution of the vessel wall thickness (Fig. 5). Several differences were found between the coronary segmental wall thickness of the ApoE−/− mice and that of the WT control mice (Table 1), although the vessel wall thickness of neither group was consistently larger. The standard deviation of the wall thickness was mostly higher in the ApoE−/− than in the WT control mice, consistent with the observations of focal wall thickening.


Ultra-high-resolution 3D imaging of atherosclerosis in mice with synchrotron differential phase contrast: a proof of concept study.

Bonanno G, Coppo S, Modregger P, Pellegrin M, Stuber A, Stampanoni M, Mazzolai L, Stuber M, van Heeswijk RB - Sci Rep (2015)

Vessel wall thickness of the mouse coronary arteries.(A) Segmentations of the inner (purple) and outer (blue) vessel wall of the left coronary artery system of an ApoE−/− mouse with their centerlines (black). Regions where the differentiation was unclear or where the vessel had collapsed were not segmented. The inset shows an example of the subsequent determination of the vessel wall thickness, where a gray plane perpendicular to the centerline is used to determine the distance between the inner and outer vessel wall, shown as contours. (B) The determined vessel wall thickness in the same mouse projected on top of the centerlines, with the color bar indicating the thickness in μm. While the thickness appears to decrease as the vessels advance from the root, there is a considerable variability. (C) Vessel wall thickness of the right coronary system of a WT control mouse. While several focal points of thickness can be observed, in general the vessel wall thickness appears to have less variability than those of their ApoE−/− counterparts.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499839&req=5

f5: Vessel wall thickness of the mouse coronary arteries.(A) Segmentations of the inner (purple) and outer (blue) vessel wall of the left coronary artery system of an ApoE−/− mouse with their centerlines (black). Regions where the differentiation was unclear or where the vessel had collapsed were not segmented. The inset shows an example of the subsequent determination of the vessel wall thickness, where a gray plane perpendicular to the centerline is used to determine the distance between the inner and outer vessel wall, shown as contours. (B) The determined vessel wall thickness in the same mouse projected on top of the centerlines, with the color bar indicating the thickness in μm. While the thickness appears to decrease as the vessels advance from the root, there is a considerable variability. (C) Vessel wall thickness of the right coronary system of a WT control mouse. While several focal points of thickness can be observed, in general the vessel wall thickness appears to have less variability than those of their ApoE−/− counterparts.
Mentions: DPC imaging provided good contrast between the coronary artery lumen, the coronary artery wall and the surrounding parenchyma (Fig. 4). The SNR of the vessel wall was 139.7 ± 2.8, the SNR of the lumen was 120.1 ± 7.3, and the SNR of the neighboring parenchyma was 134.2 ± 3.1, resulting in a vessel-wall-to-lumen CNR of 18.4 and a vessel-wall-to-parenchyma CNR of 5.5. While several plaques were observed near the ostia of the coronary arteries, no plaques were observed in more distal segments. However, focal wall thickening (Fig. 4C) was regularly observed along the coronary arteries of the atherosclerotic mice, while no such thickening was observed in the control mice. Segmentation of the coronary vessel wall was robust and resulted in detailed overviews of the distribution of the vessel wall thickness (Fig. 5). Several differences were found between the coronary segmental wall thickness of the ApoE−/− mice and that of the WT control mice (Table 1), although the vessel wall thickness of neither group was consistently larger. The standard deviation of the wall thickness was mostly higher in the ApoE−/− than in the WT control mice, consistent with the observations of focal wall thickening.

Bottom Line: The DPC imaging allowed for the visualization of complex structures such as the coronary arteries and their branches, the thin fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the chordae tendineae.The coronary vessel wall thickness ranged from 37.4 ± 5.6 μm in proximal coronary arteries to 13.6 ± 3.3 μm in distal branches.No consistent differences in coronary vessel wall thickness were detected between the wild-type and atherosclerotic hearts in this proof-of-concept study, although the standard deviation in the atherosclerotic mice was higher in most segments, consistent with the observation of occasional focal vessel wall thickening.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV) and University (UNIL) of Lausanne, Switzerland [2] Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), Lausanne, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The goal of this study was to investigate the performance of 3D synchrotron differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging for the visualization of both macroscopic and microscopic aspects of atherosclerosis in the mouse vasculature ex vivo. The hearts and aortas of 2 atherosclerotic and 2 wild-type control mice were scanned with DPC imaging with an isotropic resolution of 15 μm. The coronary artery vessel walls were segmented in the DPC datasets to assess their thickness, and histological staining was performed at the level of atherosclerotic plaques. The DPC imaging allowed for the visualization of complex structures such as the coronary arteries and their branches, the thin fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the chordae tendineae. The coronary vessel wall thickness ranged from 37.4 ± 5.6 μm in proximal coronary arteries to 13.6 ± 3.3 μm in distal branches. No consistent differences in coronary vessel wall thickness were detected between the wild-type and atherosclerotic hearts in this proof-of-concept study, although the standard deviation in the atherosclerotic mice was higher in most segments, consistent with the observation of occasional focal vessel wall thickening. Overall, DPC imaging of the cardiovascular system of the mice allowed for a simultaneous detailed 3D morphological assessment of both large structures and microscopic details.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus