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Synaptic representation of locomotion in single cerebellar granule cells.

Powell K, Mathy A, Duguid I, Häusser M - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we use in vivo patch-clamp recordings to show that locomotion can be directly read out from mossy fiber synaptic input and spike output in single granule cells.The increase in granule cell spiking during locomotion is enhanced by glutamate spillover currents recruited during movement.Thus, synaptic input delivers remarkably rich information to single neurons during locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The cerebellum plays a crucial role in the regulation of locomotion, but how movement is represented at the synaptic level is not known. Here, we use in vivo patch-clamp recordings to show that locomotion can be directly read out from mossy fiber synaptic input and spike output in single granule cells. The increase in granule cell spiking during locomotion is enhanced by glutamate spillover currents recruited during movement. Surprisingly, the entire step sequence can be predicted from input EPSCs and output spikes of a single granule cell, suggesting that a robust gait code is present already at the cerebellar input layer and transmitted via the granule cell pathway to downstream Purkinje cells. Thus, synaptic input delivers remarkably rich information to single neurons during locomotion.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Modulation of responses by locomotion onset and termination.(A) EPSC rates from 23 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the start of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the start of the first swing phase). (B) EPSC rates from 22 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the end of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the end of the last swing phase).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07290.005
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fig3s1: Modulation of responses by locomotion onset and termination.(A) EPSC rates from 23 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the start of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the start of the first swing phase). (B) EPSC rates from 22 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the end of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the end of the last swing phase).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07290.005

Mentions: We next wanted to study the relationship between activity in the granule cell layer and movement parameters. The mice were free to initiate locomotion at will, and were mostly quietly resting on the treadmill. We examined how EPSC activity changes at the start of these periods of locomotion, and found a sustained increase in rate from 100 ± 8 Hz to 145 ± 12 Hz (p = 0.0036, paired t-test, n = 23 periods from 9 cells comparing a 500 ms window 1 s before and immediately after locomotion onset; Figure 3—figure supplement 1). Similarly, at the termination of locomotion, there was a sustained decrease in EPSC rate from 139 ± 10 Hz to 106 ± 7 Hz (p = 0.0118, paired t-test, n = 23 periods from 9 cells comparing a 500 ms window immediately before and 1 s after locomotion onset). Note however that even in the absence of locomotion, EPSCs occurred at high frequencies.


Synaptic representation of locomotion in single cerebellar granule cells.

Powell K, Mathy A, Duguid I, Häusser M - Elife (2015)

Modulation of responses by locomotion onset and termination.(A) EPSC rates from 23 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the start of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the start of the first swing phase). (B) EPSC rates from 22 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the end of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the end of the last swing phase).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07290.005
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499793&req=5

fig3s1: Modulation of responses by locomotion onset and termination.(A) EPSC rates from 23 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the start of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the start of the first swing phase). (B) EPSC rates from 22 locomotion periods from 9 cells aligned to the end of locomotion (at t = 0 ms, defined as the end of the last swing phase).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07290.005
Mentions: We next wanted to study the relationship between activity in the granule cell layer and movement parameters. The mice were free to initiate locomotion at will, and were mostly quietly resting on the treadmill. We examined how EPSC activity changes at the start of these periods of locomotion, and found a sustained increase in rate from 100 ± 8 Hz to 145 ± 12 Hz (p = 0.0036, paired t-test, n = 23 periods from 9 cells comparing a 500 ms window 1 s before and immediately after locomotion onset; Figure 3—figure supplement 1). Similarly, at the termination of locomotion, there was a sustained decrease in EPSC rate from 139 ± 10 Hz to 106 ± 7 Hz (p = 0.0118, paired t-test, n = 23 periods from 9 cells comparing a 500 ms window immediately before and 1 s after locomotion onset). Note however that even in the absence of locomotion, EPSCs occurred at high frequencies.

Bottom Line: Here, we use in vivo patch-clamp recordings to show that locomotion can be directly read out from mossy fiber synaptic input and spike output in single granule cells.The increase in granule cell spiking during locomotion is enhanced by glutamate spillover currents recruited during movement.Thus, synaptic input delivers remarkably rich information to single neurons during locomotion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The cerebellum plays a crucial role in the regulation of locomotion, but how movement is represented at the synaptic level is not known. Here, we use in vivo patch-clamp recordings to show that locomotion can be directly read out from mossy fiber synaptic input and spike output in single granule cells. The increase in granule cell spiking during locomotion is enhanced by glutamate spillover currents recruited during movement. Surprisingly, the entire step sequence can be predicted from input EPSCs and output spikes of a single granule cell, suggesting that a robust gait code is present already at the cerebellar input layer and transmitted via the granule cell pathway to downstream Purkinje cells. Thus, synaptic input delivers remarkably rich information to single neurons during locomotion.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus