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Mesenchymal stem cells secretome as a modulator of the neurogenic niche: basic insights and therapeutic opportunities.

Salgado AJ, Sousa JC, Costa BM, Pires AO, Mateus-Pinheiro A, Teixeira FG, Pinto L, Sousa N - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family.But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro.Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho Braga, Portugal ; ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory Braga/GuimarĂ£es, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) share few characteristics apart from self-renewal and multipotency. In fact, the neurogenic and osteogenic stem cell niches derive from two distinct embryonary structures; while the later originates from the mesoderm, as all the connective tissues do, the first derives from the ectoderm. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that stem cells isolated from one niche could form terminally differentiated cells from the other. Additionally, these two niches are associated to tissues/systems (e.g., bone and central nervous system) that have markedly different needs and display diverse functions within the human body. Nevertheless they do share common features. For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family. Moreover, both NSCs and MSCs secrete a panel of common growth factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), among others. But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro. In fact the use of MSCs, and their secretome, become a strong candidate to be used as a therapeutic tool for CNS applications, namely by triggering the endogenous proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, among other mechanisms. Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries. In the present review we highlight how MSCs and NSCs in the neurogenic niches interact. Furthermore, we propose directions on this field and explore the future therapeutic possibilities that may arise from the combination/interaction of MSCs and NSCs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neurogenic niches. MSCs, a cell population with a known function in the osteogenic niche, is able to modulate the action of Neural stem cells (NSCs) by means of their secretome. Through the secretion of neuroregulatory molecules, either soluble or in the form of vesicles, MSCs are able to influence processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, remyelination and neural plasticity. With it important developments have been recently witnessed in CNS regenerative medicine strategies.
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Figure 2: Interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neurogenic niches. MSCs, a cell population with a known function in the osteogenic niche, is able to modulate the action of Neural stem cells (NSCs) by means of their secretome. Through the secretion of neuroregulatory molecules, either soluble or in the form of vesicles, MSCs are able to influence processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, remyelination and neural plasticity. With it important developments have been recently witnessed in CNS regenerative medicine strategies.

Mentions: The action of MSCs and their secretome in neurogenic niches (Figure 2) such as the SGZ has been previously described. For instance, Munoz et al. (2006) transplanted BMSCs into the DG of immunodeficient mice. Results revealed that the transplanted MSCs markedly increased the proliferation of endogenous NSCs that expressed the stem cell marker Sox2, as well as their differentiation, a fact that was attributed to a local increase on the expression of growth factors such as VEGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), neurotrophin-4/5 and NGF. More recently it was also shown that the injection of the secretome of MSCs itself, was also able to modulate both neuronal survival and differentiation within the adult rat hippocampus. Teixeira et al. (2015) show that the injection of the secretome of HUCPVCs (a MSC population that resides in the perivascular region of the umbilical cord) was able to induce an increased number of DCX+ cells. This observation was then related with a higher expression of FGF-2 and NGF in the injected area.


Mesenchymal stem cells secretome as a modulator of the neurogenic niche: basic insights and therapeutic opportunities.

Salgado AJ, Sousa JC, Costa BM, Pires AO, Mateus-Pinheiro A, Teixeira FG, Pinto L, Sousa N - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neurogenic niches. MSCs, a cell population with a known function in the osteogenic niche, is able to modulate the action of Neural stem cells (NSCs) by means of their secretome. Through the secretion of neuroregulatory molecules, either soluble or in the form of vesicles, MSCs are able to influence processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, remyelination and neural plasticity. With it important developments have been recently witnessed in CNS regenerative medicine strategies.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499760&req=5

Figure 2: Interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neurogenic niches. MSCs, a cell population with a known function in the osteogenic niche, is able to modulate the action of Neural stem cells (NSCs) by means of their secretome. Through the secretion of neuroregulatory molecules, either soluble or in the form of vesicles, MSCs are able to influence processes such as neurogenesis, gliogenesis, remyelination and neural plasticity. With it important developments have been recently witnessed in CNS regenerative medicine strategies.
Mentions: The action of MSCs and their secretome in neurogenic niches (Figure 2) such as the SGZ has been previously described. For instance, Munoz et al. (2006) transplanted BMSCs into the DG of immunodeficient mice. Results revealed that the transplanted MSCs markedly increased the proliferation of endogenous NSCs that expressed the stem cell marker Sox2, as well as their differentiation, a fact that was attributed to a local increase on the expression of growth factors such as VEGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), neurotrophin-4/5 and NGF. More recently it was also shown that the injection of the secretome of MSCs itself, was also able to modulate both neuronal survival and differentiation within the adult rat hippocampus. Teixeira et al. (2015) show that the injection of the secretome of HUCPVCs (a MSC population that resides in the perivascular region of the umbilical cord) was able to induce an increased number of DCX+ cells. This observation was then related with a higher expression of FGF-2 and NGF in the injected area.

Bottom Line: For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family.But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro.Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho Braga, Portugal ; ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory Braga/GuimarĂ£es, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) share few characteristics apart from self-renewal and multipotency. In fact, the neurogenic and osteogenic stem cell niches derive from two distinct embryonary structures; while the later originates from the mesoderm, as all the connective tissues do, the first derives from the ectoderm. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that stem cells isolated from one niche could form terminally differentiated cells from the other. Additionally, these two niches are associated to tissues/systems (e.g., bone and central nervous system) that have markedly different needs and display diverse functions within the human body. Nevertheless they do share common features. For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family. Moreover, both NSCs and MSCs secrete a panel of common growth factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), among others. But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro. In fact the use of MSCs, and their secretome, become a strong candidate to be used as a therapeutic tool for CNS applications, namely by triggering the endogenous proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, among other mechanisms. Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries. In the present review we highlight how MSCs and NSCs in the neurogenic niches interact. Furthermore, we propose directions on this field and explore the future therapeutic possibilities that may arise from the combination/interaction of MSCs and NSCs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus