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Mesenchymal stem cells secretome as a modulator of the neurogenic niche: basic insights and therapeutic opportunities.

Salgado AJ, Sousa JC, Costa BM, Pires AO, Mateus-Pinheiro A, Teixeira FG, Pinto L, Sousa N - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family.But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro.Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho Braga, Portugal ; ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory Braga/GuimarĂ£es, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) share few characteristics apart from self-renewal and multipotency. In fact, the neurogenic and osteogenic stem cell niches derive from two distinct embryonary structures; while the later originates from the mesoderm, as all the connective tissues do, the first derives from the ectoderm. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that stem cells isolated from one niche could form terminally differentiated cells from the other. Additionally, these two niches are associated to tissues/systems (e.g., bone and central nervous system) that have markedly different needs and display diverse functions within the human body. Nevertheless they do share common features. For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family. Moreover, both NSCs and MSCs secrete a panel of common growth factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), among others. But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro. In fact the use of MSCs, and their secretome, become a strong candidate to be used as a therapeutic tool for CNS applications, namely by triggering the endogenous proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, among other mechanisms. Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries. In the present review we highlight how MSCs and NSCs in the neurogenic niches interact. Furthermore, we propose directions on this field and explore the future therapeutic possibilities that may arise from the combination/interaction of MSCs and NSCs.

No MeSH data available.


Neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The top panel represents, in a saggital section of the rodent brain, the two major niches of neural progenitor cells in the adult brain: one, in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and the other, the subependymal zone (SEZ), from where progenitor cells committed to the neuronal lineage migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB). The bottom left panel illustrates the typical cytoarchitecture of the SEZ niche while the cell population in the DG niche is presented in the bottom right panel.
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Figure 1: Neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The top panel represents, in a saggital section of the rodent brain, the two major niches of neural progenitor cells in the adult brain: one, in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and the other, the subependymal zone (SEZ), from where progenitor cells committed to the neuronal lineage migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB). The bottom left panel illustrates the typical cytoarchitecture of the SEZ niche while the cell population in the DG niche is presented in the bottom right panel.

Mentions: Globally, this neuroadaptative phenomenon occurs by the re-organization of the neuromorphological and electrophysiological properties of post-mitotic cells and the generation of new neuronal or glial cells that will incorporate the pre-existing networks, a process therefore called neuro- or gliogenesis, respectively (Guan et al., 2009). This complex process involves several steps beyond cell division; these include the commitment of the new cell to a neuronal phenotype, the migration and morphophysiological maturation of the neuroblasts, and the establishment of appropriate synaptic contacts that culminate with a full integration on the pre-existent network. These spatially defined brain regions where neurogenesis occurs display a permissive microenvironment for maintenance, proliferation and differentiation of Neural stem cells (NSCs). Admittedly, at least two defined neurogenic brain regions are broadly recognized in the adult mammalian brain (Figure 1): the subependymal zone (SEZ) of the lateral ventricles, and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG; Zhao et al., 2008). In both regions, astroglial cells act as the source of adult progenitor cells (Seri et al., 2001).


Mesenchymal stem cells secretome as a modulator of the neurogenic niche: basic insights and therapeutic opportunities.

Salgado AJ, Sousa JC, Costa BM, Pires AO, Mateus-Pinheiro A, Teixeira FG, Pinto L, Sousa N - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The top panel represents, in a saggital section of the rodent brain, the two major niches of neural progenitor cells in the adult brain: one, in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and the other, the subependymal zone (SEZ), from where progenitor cells committed to the neuronal lineage migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB). The bottom left panel illustrates the typical cytoarchitecture of the SEZ niche while the cell population in the DG niche is presented in the bottom right panel.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499760&req=5

Figure 1: Neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The top panel represents, in a saggital section of the rodent brain, the two major niches of neural progenitor cells in the adult brain: one, in the sub granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and the other, the subependymal zone (SEZ), from where progenitor cells committed to the neuronal lineage migrate via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB). The bottom left panel illustrates the typical cytoarchitecture of the SEZ niche while the cell population in the DG niche is presented in the bottom right panel.
Mentions: Globally, this neuroadaptative phenomenon occurs by the re-organization of the neuromorphological and electrophysiological properties of post-mitotic cells and the generation of new neuronal or glial cells that will incorporate the pre-existing networks, a process therefore called neuro- or gliogenesis, respectively (Guan et al., 2009). This complex process involves several steps beyond cell division; these include the commitment of the new cell to a neuronal phenotype, the migration and morphophysiological maturation of the neuroblasts, and the establishment of appropriate synaptic contacts that culminate with a full integration on the pre-existent network. These spatially defined brain regions where neurogenesis occurs display a permissive microenvironment for maintenance, proliferation and differentiation of Neural stem cells (NSCs). Admittedly, at least two defined neurogenic brain regions are broadly recognized in the adult mammalian brain (Figure 1): the subependymal zone (SEZ) of the lateral ventricles, and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG; Zhao et al., 2008). In both regions, astroglial cells act as the source of adult progenitor cells (Seri et al., 2001).

Bottom Line: For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family.But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro.Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho Braga, Portugal ; ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory Braga/GuimarĂ£es, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) share few characteristics apart from self-renewal and multipotency. In fact, the neurogenic and osteogenic stem cell niches derive from two distinct embryonary structures; while the later originates from the mesoderm, as all the connective tissues do, the first derives from the ectoderm. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that stem cells isolated from one niche could form terminally differentiated cells from the other. Additionally, these two niches are associated to tissues/systems (e.g., bone and central nervous system) that have markedly different needs and display diverse functions within the human body. Nevertheless they do share common features. For instance, the differentiation of both NSCs and MSCs is intimately associated with the bone morphogenetic protein family. Moreover, both NSCs and MSCs secrete a panel of common growth factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), among others. But it is not the features they share but the interaction between them that seem most important, and worth exploring; namely, it has already been shown that there are mutually beneficially effects when these cell types are co-cultured in vitro. In fact the use of MSCs, and their secretome, become a strong candidate to be used as a therapeutic tool for CNS applications, namely by triggering the endogenous proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, among other mechanisms. Quite interestingly it was recently revealed that MSCs could be found in the human brain, in the vicinity of capillaries. In the present review we highlight how MSCs and NSCs in the neurogenic niches interact. Furthermore, we propose directions on this field and explore the future therapeutic possibilities that may arise from the combination/interaction of MSCs and NSCs.

No MeSH data available.