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Potential of adipose-derived stem cells in muscular regenerative therapies.

Forcales SV - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages.Autologous ASCs are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications.This review will summarize the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genetics and Epigenetics of Cancer, Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles resides in satellite cells, a self-renewing population of muscle cells. Several studies are investigating epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenic proliferation and differentiation to find new approaches that could boost regeneration of endogenous myogenic progenitor populations. In recent years, a lot of effort has been applied to purify, expand and manipulate adult stem cells from muscle tissue. However, this population of endogenous myogenic progenitors in adults is limited and their access is difficult and invasive. Therefore, other sources of stem cells with potential to regenerate muscles need to be examined. An excellent candidate could be a population of adult stromal cells within fat characterized by mesenchymal properties, which have been termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages. Autologous ASCs are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications. This review will summarize the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Isolation, expansion and differentiation of ASCs. Adipose tissue is obtained from lipoaspirates but it can also be obtained from other surgeries. Upon digestion with collagenase type IA followed by centrifugation; the pellet obtained is known as SVF. SVF is a mixture of several types of progenitors and more differentiated cells. A majority of cells (90–100%) are positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, and this fraction is the ASCs. Other markers such as CD146 and CD34 are more controversial, and may represent subsets of other progenitors, which vary in their ratios depending on anatomical origin of fat and other parameters related to donors. In vitro culture of this proliferating population, which can arrive to 70 PDs, can also alter percentages of specific progenitors. Therefore, differential expression of CD markers and their fluctuations may represent a heterogenic composition of ASCs, which contain subsets of multipotent cells that can respond to differentiation cues of other lineages (represented in red and yellow). Adipocyte is the main lineage obtained from ASCs, however, upon culture with defined media, or by ectopically expressing specific factors, myogenic, osteogenic and other lineages can also be obtained. It is also possible that progenitors can transdifferentiate (indicated by orange arrows) in response to lineage specific cues.
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Figure 1: Isolation, expansion and differentiation of ASCs. Adipose tissue is obtained from lipoaspirates but it can also be obtained from other surgeries. Upon digestion with collagenase type IA followed by centrifugation; the pellet obtained is known as SVF. SVF is a mixture of several types of progenitors and more differentiated cells. A majority of cells (90–100%) are positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, and this fraction is the ASCs. Other markers such as CD146 and CD34 are more controversial, and may represent subsets of other progenitors, which vary in their ratios depending on anatomical origin of fat and other parameters related to donors. In vitro culture of this proliferating population, which can arrive to 70 PDs, can also alter percentages of specific progenitors. Therefore, differential expression of CD markers and their fluctuations may represent a heterogenic composition of ASCs, which contain subsets of multipotent cells that can respond to differentiation cues of other lineages (represented in red and yellow). Adipocyte is the main lineage obtained from ASCs, however, upon culture with defined media, or by ectopically expressing specific factors, myogenic, osteogenic and other lineages can also be obtained. It is also possible that progenitors can transdifferentiate (indicated by orange arrows) in response to lineage specific cues.

Mentions: The protocol for ASCs isolation comprises an enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or lipoaspirate, with collagenase type IA, followed by centrifugation (Figure 1). The pellet is called stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a heterogeneous population of cells: fibroblast, red blood cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and preadipocytes. Freshly isolated SVF can be plated with growth media (typically DMEM + 10% FBS) where a population of adherent cells proliferates and can be expanded for several passage doublings (PDs) in most cases without karyotype abnormalities (more than 70 PDs reported by; Rodriguez et al., 2005). This adherent population is considered to be ASCs, which is characterized to be positive for a specific set of surface mesenchymal markers: CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49d, CD90, CD105 and negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD11, CD14, CD31, CD45 and CD144 (Zuk et al., 2002; Katz et al., 2005; Mitchell et al., 2006; Yoshimura et al., 2006; Varma et al., 2007; Zannettino et al., 2008). Other CD markers have been more controversial and with expressions showing variable percentages amongst total ASCs population. For instance, many works report that CD146 is not expressed by ASCs, however there is data suggesting that a subset of ASCs express CD146 and localize to areas surrounding blood vessels (Crisan et al., 2008; Zannettino et al., 2008; Cai et al., 2011), arguing in favor that a pericyte multipotent population resides in adipose tissue. A CD34 + CD146- population with multipotent abilities has been detected as well in the outer adventitial ring of vasculature (Traktuev et al., 2008; Zimmerlin et al., 2010). Therefore, all these works suggest that several lineage precursors may be forming part of ASCs population (Zeve et al., 2009) and that their relative composition present in isolated SVF may reflect different anatomic origins of adipose tissues, as well as other characteristics associated to donors such as age, body mass index, gender and health conditions. In other words, the particular niche of adipose tissue has an important role to determine type and quantities of progenitors, and a more detailed analysis needs to be performed in order to fully understand which subtypes of progenitors are better suited for a specific regenerative aim.


Potential of adipose-derived stem cells in muscular regenerative therapies.

Forcales SV - Front Aging Neurosci (2015)

Isolation, expansion and differentiation of ASCs. Adipose tissue is obtained from lipoaspirates but it can also be obtained from other surgeries. Upon digestion with collagenase type IA followed by centrifugation; the pellet obtained is known as SVF. SVF is a mixture of several types of progenitors and more differentiated cells. A majority of cells (90–100%) are positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, and this fraction is the ASCs. Other markers such as CD146 and CD34 are more controversial, and may represent subsets of other progenitors, which vary in their ratios depending on anatomical origin of fat and other parameters related to donors. In vitro culture of this proliferating population, which can arrive to 70 PDs, can also alter percentages of specific progenitors. Therefore, differential expression of CD markers and their fluctuations may represent a heterogenic composition of ASCs, which contain subsets of multipotent cells that can respond to differentiation cues of other lineages (represented in red and yellow). Adipocyte is the main lineage obtained from ASCs, however, upon culture with defined media, or by ectopically expressing specific factors, myogenic, osteogenic and other lineages can also be obtained. It is also possible that progenitors can transdifferentiate (indicated by orange arrows) in response to lineage specific cues.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499759&req=5

Figure 1: Isolation, expansion and differentiation of ASCs. Adipose tissue is obtained from lipoaspirates but it can also be obtained from other surgeries. Upon digestion with collagenase type IA followed by centrifugation; the pellet obtained is known as SVF. SVF is a mixture of several types of progenitors and more differentiated cells. A majority of cells (90–100%) are positive for mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, and this fraction is the ASCs. Other markers such as CD146 and CD34 are more controversial, and may represent subsets of other progenitors, which vary in their ratios depending on anatomical origin of fat and other parameters related to donors. In vitro culture of this proliferating population, which can arrive to 70 PDs, can also alter percentages of specific progenitors. Therefore, differential expression of CD markers and their fluctuations may represent a heterogenic composition of ASCs, which contain subsets of multipotent cells that can respond to differentiation cues of other lineages (represented in red and yellow). Adipocyte is the main lineage obtained from ASCs, however, upon culture with defined media, or by ectopically expressing specific factors, myogenic, osteogenic and other lineages can also be obtained. It is also possible that progenitors can transdifferentiate (indicated by orange arrows) in response to lineage specific cues.
Mentions: The protocol for ASCs isolation comprises an enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or lipoaspirate, with collagenase type IA, followed by centrifugation (Figure 1). The pellet is called stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a heterogeneous population of cells: fibroblast, red blood cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and preadipocytes. Freshly isolated SVF can be plated with growth media (typically DMEM + 10% FBS) where a population of adherent cells proliferates and can be expanded for several passage doublings (PDs) in most cases without karyotype abnormalities (more than 70 PDs reported by; Rodriguez et al., 2005). This adherent population is considered to be ASCs, which is characterized to be positive for a specific set of surface mesenchymal markers: CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49d, CD90, CD105 and negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD11, CD14, CD31, CD45 and CD144 (Zuk et al., 2002; Katz et al., 2005; Mitchell et al., 2006; Yoshimura et al., 2006; Varma et al., 2007; Zannettino et al., 2008). Other CD markers have been more controversial and with expressions showing variable percentages amongst total ASCs population. For instance, many works report that CD146 is not expressed by ASCs, however there is data suggesting that a subset of ASCs express CD146 and localize to areas surrounding blood vessels (Crisan et al., 2008; Zannettino et al., 2008; Cai et al., 2011), arguing in favor that a pericyte multipotent population resides in adipose tissue. A CD34 + CD146- population with multipotent abilities has been detected as well in the outer adventitial ring of vasculature (Traktuev et al., 2008; Zimmerlin et al., 2010). Therefore, all these works suggest that several lineage precursors may be forming part of ASCs population (Zeve et al., 2009) and that their relative composition present in isolated SVF may reflect different anatomic origins of adipose tissues, as well as other characteristics associated to donors such as age, body mass index, gender and health conditions. In other words, the particular niche of adipose tissue has an important role to determine type and quantities of progenitors, and a more detailed analysis needs to be performed in order to fully understand which subtypes of progenitors are better suited for a specific regenerative aim.

Bottom Line: These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages.Autologous ASCs are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications.This review will summarize the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genetics and Epigenetics of Cancer, Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer Barcelona, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles resides in satellite cells, a self-renewing population of muscle cells. Several studies are investigating epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenic proliferation and differentiation to find new approaches that could boost regeneration of endogenous myogenic progenitor populations. In recent years, a lot of effort has been applied to purify, expand and manipulate adult stem cells from muscle tissue. However, this population of endogenous myogenic progenitors in adults is limited and their access is difficult and invasive. Therefore, other sources of stem cells with potential to regenerate muscles need to be examined. An excellent candidate could be a population of adult stromal cells within fat characterized by mesenchymal properties, which have been termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). These progenitor adult stem cells have been successfully differentiated in vitro to osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic and myogenic lineages. Autologous ASCs are multipotent and can be harvested with low morbidity; thus, they hold promise for a range of therapeutic applications. This review will summarize the use of ASCs in muscle regenerative approaches.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus