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Breastfeeding, lung volumes and alveolar size at school-age.

Dogaru CM, Narayanan M, Spycher BD, Pescatore AM, Owers-Bradley J, Beardsmore CS, Silverman M, Kuehni CE - BMJ Open Respir Res (2015)

Bottom Line: We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders.We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample.Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern , Switzerland ; Department of Children, Young People and Education , University Campus Suffolk , UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies found larger lung volumes at school-age in formerly breastfed children, with some studies suggesting an effect modification by maternal asthma. We wanted to explore this further in children who had undergone extensive lung function testing. The current study aimed to assess whether breastfeeding was associated with larger lung volumes and, if so, whether all compartments were affected. We also assessed association of breastfeeding with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which measures freedom of gas diffusion in alveolar-acinar compartments and is a surrogate of alveolar dimensions. Additionally, we assessed whether these effects were modified by maternal asthma.

Methods: We analysed data from 111 children and young adults aged 11-21 years, who had participated in detailed lung function testing, including spirometry, plethysmography and measurement of ADC of (3)Helium ((3)He) by MR. Information on breastfeeding came from questionnaires applied in early childhood (age 1-4 years). We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders.

Results: We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample. In breastfed children of mothers with asthma, we observed larger lung volumes and larger average alveolar size than in non-breastfed children, but the differences did not reach significance levels.

Conclusions: Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health. Further investigations with larger sample sizes are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Association between breastfeeding and lung function measurements by maternal asthma, fully adjusted model with interaction. The graph represents the adjusted means and CIs for each breastfeeding category (from left to right: none, ≤3 months and >3 months), in the entire sample (blue diamonds) and stratified by children of mothers with no asthma (green squares) and children of mothers with asthma (red triangles). The estimates come from the adjusted model with interaction.
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BMJRESP2015000081F1: Association between breastfeeding and lung function measurements by maternal asthma, fully adjusted model with interaction. The graph represents the adjusted means and CIs for each breastfeeding category (from left to right: none, ≤3 months and >3 months), in the entire sample (blue diamonds) and stratified by children of mothers with no asthma (green squares) and children of mothers with asthma (red triangles). The estimates come from the adjusted model with interaction.

Mentions: The results from the model that tested an effect modification by maternal asthma are presented in table 3 and figure 1. We did not find significant evidence for an effect modification by maternal asthma. Among participants born to mothers with asthma there was a tendency towards larger lung volumes and alveolar size in those who were breastfed >3 months compared with those who were not breastfed but in offspring of mothers without asthma these differences were close to zero. When compared with participants who had not been breastfed, the FRC of participants breastfed >3 months was on average larger by 2.4% in offspring of non-asthmatic mothers but larger by 15.2% in those born to asthmatic mothers. Similar differences between children of asthmatic and non-asthmatic mothers were found for the other lung volumes (table 3). The ADC of participants breastfed over 3 months was 0.5% lower in those born to non-asthmatic mothers but 11.0% higher in those born to asthmatic mothers. Using the formula ADC ratio=(volume ratio)0.415, we determined that among participants breastfed for over 3 months the average alveolar size was smaller by 1.2% in participants of non-asthmatic mothers but 28.6% larger in participants of asthmatic mothers compared to participants who were not breastfed (table 3).


Breastfeeding, lung volumes and alveolar size at school-age.

Dogaru CM, Narayanan M, Spycher BD, Pescatore AM, Owers-Bradley J, Beardsmore CS, Silverman M, Kuehni CE - BMJ Open Respir Res (2015)

Association between breastfeeding and lung function measurements by maternal asthma, fully adjusted model with interaction. The graph represents the adjusted means and CIs for each breastfeeding category (from left to right: none, ≤3 months and >3 months), in the entire sample (blue diamonds) and stratified by children of mothers with no asthma (green squares) and children of mothers with asthma (red triangles). The estimates come from the adjusted model with interaction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499711&req=5

BMJRESP2015000081F1: Association between breastfeeding and lung function measurements by maternal asthma, fully adjusted model with interaction. The graph represents the adjusted means and CIs for each breastfeeding category (from left to right: none, ≤3 months and >3 months), in the entire sample (blue diamonds) and stratified by children of mothers with no asthma (green squares) and children of mothers with asthma (red triangles). The estimates come from the adjusted model with interaction.
Mentions: The results from the model that tested an effect modification by maternal asthma are presented in table 3 and figure 1. We did not find significant evidence for an effect modification by maternal asthma. Among participants born to mothers with asthma there was a tendency towards larger lung volumes and alveolar size in those who were breastfed >3 months compared with those who were not breastfed but in offspring of mothers without asthma these differences were close to zero. When compared with participants who had not been breastfed, the FRC of participants breastfed >3 months was on average larger by 2.4% in offspring of non-asthmatic mothers but larger by 15.2% in those born to asthmatic mothers. Similar differences between children of asthmatic and non-asthmatic mothers were found for the other lung volumes (table 3). The ADC of participants breastfed over 3 months was 0.5% lower in those born to non-asthmatic mothers but 11.0% higher in those born to asthmatic mothers. Using the formula ADC ratio=(volume ratio)0.415, we determined that among participants breastfed for over 3 months the average alveolar size was smaller by 1.2% in participants of non-asthmatic mothers but 28.6% larger in participants of asthmatic mothers compared to participants who were not breastfed (table 3).

Bottom Line: We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders.We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample.Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern , Switzerland ; Department of Children, Young People and Education , University Campus Suffolk , UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies found larger lung volumes at school-age in formerly breastfed children, with some studies suggesting an effect modification by maternal asthma. We wanted to explore this further in children who had undergone extensive lung function testing. The current study aimed to assess whether breastfeeding was associated with larger lung volumes and, if so, whether all compartments were affected. We also assessed association of breastfeeding with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which measures freedom of gas diffusion in alveolar-acinar compartments and is a surrogate of alveolar dimensions. Additionally, we assessed whether these effects were modified by maternal asthma.

Methods: We analysed data from 111 children and young adults aged 11-21 years, who had participated in detailed lung function testing, including spirometry, plethysmography and measurement of ADC of (3)Helium ((3)He) by MR. Information on breastfeeding came from questionnaires applied in early childhood (age 1-4 years). We determined the association between breastfeeding and these measurements using linear regression, controlling for potential confounders.

Results: We did not find significant evidence for an association between duration of breastfeeding and lung volumes or alveolar dimensions in the entire sample. In breastfed children of mothers with asthma, we observed larger lung volumes and larger average alveolar size than in non-breastfed children, but the differences did not reach significance levels.

Conclusions: Confirmation of effects of breastfeeding on lung volumes would have important implications for public health. Further investigations with larger sample sizes are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus