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Expertise and decision-making in American football.

Woods AJ, Kranjec A, Lehet M, Chatterjee A - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently.In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events.More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Institute on Aging - Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA ; Department of Neurology, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average number of right-moving versus left-moving pass interference calls for each group with two example stimuli.∗p < 0.05.
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Figure 2: Average number of right-moving versus left-moving pass interference calls for each group with two example stimuli.∗p < 0.05.

Mentions: While the 3 × 2 ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of Group [F(2,96) = 19.4, p < 0.001, = 0.30, Figure 2], there was neither a significant main effect of Direction nor a Group × Direction interaction (F’s < 0.13.1, p > 0.05). Paired samples t-tests of the number of pass interference calls made on right-moving versus left-moving plays demonstrated that only the Football Player Group was significantly influenced by spatial biases related to the direction of motion in events (t = -2.4, DF = 15, p = 0.03, Cohen’s d = 0.27), judging more left-moving stimuli to contain pass interference (37.4 calls) than the same stimuli moving rightward (35.2 calls). Thus, the Football Player Group was approximately 6% more likely to call pass interference when seeing a picture in its leftward compared to rightward version, even though the two stimuli were otherwise perceptually identical. Neither the Football Naïve nor Football Official Groups were influenced by spatial biases from the direction of motion (t’s < 0.035, DF’s = 15, p’s > 0.94; Mean rightward/leftward calls: Naïve = 46.62/46.68, Officials = 31.9/31.8).


Expertise and decision-making in American football.

Woods AJ, Kranjec A, Lehet M, Chatterjee A - Front Psychol (2015)

Average number of right-moving versus left-moving pass interference calls for each group with two example stimuli.∗p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499674&req=5

Figure 2: Average number of right-moving versus left-moving pass interference calls for each group with two example stimuli.∗p < 0.05.
Mentions: While the 3 × 2 ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of Group [F(2,96) = 19.4, p < 0.001, = 0.30, Figure 2], there was neither a significant main effect of Direction nor a Group × Direction interaction (F’s < 0.13.1, p > 0.05). Paired samples t-tests of the number of pass interference calls made on right-moving versus left-moving plays demonstrated that only the Football Player Group was significantly influenced by spatial biases related to the direction of motion in events (t = -2.4, DF = 15, p = 0.03, Cohen’s d = 0.27), judging more left-moving stimuli to contain pass interference (37.4 calls) than the same stimuli moving rightward (35.2 calls). Thus, the Football Player Group was approximately 6% more likely to call pass interference when seeing a picture in its leftward compared to rightward version, even though the two stimuli were otherwise perceptually identical. Neither the Football Naïve nor Football Official Groups were influenced by spatial biases from the direction of motion (t’s < 0.035, DF’s = 15, p’s > 0.94; Mean rightward/leftward calls: Naïve = 46.62/46.68, Officials = 31.9/31.8).

Bottom Line: American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently.In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events.More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Institute on Aging - Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA ; Department of Neurology, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus