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Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

Messina I, Bianco S, Sambin M, Viviani R - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated.Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas.These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology, University of Padua Padova, Italy ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy III, University of Ulm Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought.

No MeSH data available.


Brain activity in reappraisal of stimuli and reappraisal via perspective-taking. In violet increased brain activity during RS; in green increased brain activity during reappraisal via perspective-taking. mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; iFG, inferior frontal gyrus; mTG, middle temporal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus.
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Figure 2: Brain activity in reappraisal of stimuli and reappraisal via perspective-taking. In violet increased brain activity during RS; in green increased brain activity during reappraisal via perspective-taking. mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; iFG, inferior frontal gyrus; mTG, middle temporal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus.

Mentions: The meta-analysis of studies on RS included eight studies and 163 participants, yielding a total of 105 foci for the contrast RS condition versus control condition and four studies, 73 subjects yielding a total of 18 foci for the contrast control condition versus RS. The results of this meta-analysis were quite similar to the results of the main meta-analysis, with significant clusters of increased brain activation in dorsal attentional system (in dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex) and in the sematic system (temporal gyrus and angular gyrus on the left, inferior prefrontal cortex; see Table 3A, Figure 2 in violet), and significant clusters of decreased activation in areas involved in emotional reactivity (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally; see Table 3B, Figure 2 in violet).


Executive and semantic processes in reappraisal of negative stimuli: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

Messina I, Bianco S, Sambin M, Viviani R - Front Psychol (2015)

Brain activity in reappraisal of stimuli and reappraisal via perspective-taking. In violet increased brain activity during RS; in green increased brain activity during reappraisal via perspective-taking. mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; iFG, inferior frontal gyrus; mTG, middle temporal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499672&req=5

Figure 2: Brain activity in reappraisal of stimuli and reappraisal via perspective-taking. In violet increased brain activity during RS; in green increased brain activity during reappraisal via perspective-taking. mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; dlPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; iFG, inferior frontal gyrus; mTG, middle temporal gyrus; AG, angular gyrus.
Mentions: The meta-analysis of studies on RS included eight studies and 163 participants, yielding a total of 105 foci for the contrast RS condition versus control condition and four studies, 73 subjects yielding a total of 18 foci for the contrast control condition versus RS. The results of this meta-analysis were quite similar to the results of the main meta-analysis, with significant clusters of increased brain activation in dorsal attentional system (in dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex) and in the sematic system (temporal gyrus and angular gyrus on the left, inferior prefrontal cortex; see Table 3A, Figure 2 in violet), and significant clusters of decreased activation in areas involved in emotional reactivity (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally; see Table 3B, Figure 2 in violet).

Bottom Line: When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated.Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas.These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology, University of Padua Padova, Italy ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy III, University of Ulm Ulm, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Neuroimaging investigations have identified the neural correlates of reappraisal in executive areas. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for recruitment of controlled processes, at the expense of automatic processes when responding to emotional stimuli. However, activation of semantic areas has also been reported. The aim of the present work was to address the issue of the importance of semantic areas in emotion regulation by comparing recruitment of executive and semantic neural substrates in studies investigating different reappraisal strategies. With this aim, we reviewed neuroimaging studies on reappraisal and we classified them in two main categories: reappraisal of stimuli (RS) and reappraisal via perspective taking (RPT). We applied a coordinate-based meta-analysis to summarize the results of fMRI studies on different reappraisal strategies. Our results showed that reappraisal, when considered regardless of the specific instruction used in the studies, involved both executive and semantic areas of the brain. When considering different reappraisal strategies separately, in contrast, we found areas associated with executive function to be prominently recruited by RS, even if also semantic areas were activated. Instead, in RPT the most important clusters of brain activity were found in parietal and temporal semantic areas, without significant clusters in executive areas. These results indicate that modulation of activity in semantic areas may constitute an important aspect of emotion regulation in reappraisal, suggesting that semantic processes may be more important to understand the mechanism of emotion regulation than previously thought.

No MeSH data available.