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Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation.

Kim SE, Yun YP, Lee DW, Kang EY, Jeong WJ, Lee B, Jeong MS, Kim HJ, Park K, Song HR - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone.Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rare Diseases Institute, Korea University Medical College, Guro Hospital, No. 80, Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN-) eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

No MeSH data available.


Attenuated total Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra of (a) ALN, (b) BCP, (c) ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and (d) ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds. The characteristic peaks of alendronate sodium appear at 926 cm−1 for the hydroxyl group and at 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 for P=O (indicated by the arrows), and BCP appears at 940–1120 cm−1, 603 cm−1, and 566 cm−1 for orthophosphate (PO4) (indicated by the black triangles). These experiments were repeated three times.
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fig2: Attenuated total Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra of (a) ALN, (b) BCP, (c) ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and (d) ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds. The characteristic peaks of alendronate sodium appear at 926 cm−1 for the hydroxyl group and at 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 for P=O (indicated by the arrows), and BCP appears at 940–1120 cm−1, 603 cm−1, and 566 cm−1 for orthophosphate (PO4) (indicated by the black triangles). These experiments were repeated three times.

Mentions: The surface morphologies of BCP and ALN-BCP scaffolds were investigated by SEM. In SEM images, the surfaces of BCP and ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP and ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds showed similar morphologies, with open and round-shaped pores ranging in size from 100 to 300 μm (Figure 1(a), (A)–(C)). To confirm the successful preparation of ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds, the chemical distribution (i.e., C, N, O, P, and Ca) mapping images of BCP and ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds were obtained by EDS analysis. As shown in representative mapping images of BCP and ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, colors for C (green), O (blue), N (light blue), and P (red) on ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP were evenly distributed on the surface of BCP scaffolds (Figure 1(b)). The surface elemental chemical compositions (i.e., C, N, O, P, and Ca) of BCP and ALN-BCP scaffolds were also determined with EDS. In particular, successful loading of ALN on the surface of BCP scaffolds was confirmed by an increase in the N content. As the amount of added ALN increased, N content increased from 0% for BCP, 4.60% for ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and 8.03% for ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds (Table 1). The loading of ALN on the surface of BCP scaffolds was also confirmed with ATR-FTIR. As shown in Figure 2, the characteristic absorption peaks of orthophosphate (PO4) were observed at 940–1120 cm−1 and 566 cm−1 on BCP and the two ALN/BCP scaffolds. As the amount of added ALN increased, the characteristic peaks for alendronates were observed at 926 cm−1 (hydroxyl groups) and 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 (P=O stretch) and their peak intensities increased.


Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation.

Kim SE, Yun YP, Lee DW, Kang EY, Jeong WJ, Lee B, Jeong MS, Kim HJ, Park K, Song HR - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Attenuated total Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra of (a) ALN, (b) BCP, (c) ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and (d) ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds. The characteristic peaks of alendronate sodium appear at 926 cm−1 for the hydroxyl group and at 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 for P=O (indicated by the arrows), and BCP appears at 940–1120 cm−1, 603 cm−1, and 566 cm−1 for orthophosphate (PO4) (indicated by the black triangles). These experiments were repeated three times.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig2: Attenuated total Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra of (a) ALN, (b) BCP, (c) ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and (d) ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds. The characteristic peaks of alendronate sodium appear at 926 cm−1 for the hydroxyl group and at 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 for P=O (indicated by the arrows), and BCP appears at 940–1120 cm−1, 603 cm−1, and 566 cm−1 for orthophosphate (PO4) (indicated by the black triangles). These experiments were repeated three times.
Mentions: The surface morphologies of BCP and ALN-BCP scaffolds were investigated by SEM. In SEM images, the surfaces of BCP and ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP and ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds showed similar morphologies, with open and round-shaped pores ranging in size from 100 to 300 μm (Figure 1(a), (A)–(C)). To confirm the successful preparation of ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds, the chemical distribution (i.e., C, N, O, P, and Ca) mapping images of BCP and ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds were obtained by EDS analysis. As shown in representative mapping images of BCP and ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, colors for C (green), O (blue), N (light blue), and P (red) on ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP were evenly distributed on the surface of BCP scaffolds (Figure 1(b)). The surface elemental chemical compositions (i.e., C, N, O, P, and Ca) of BCP and ALN-BCP scaffolds were also determined with EDS. In particular, successful loading of ALN on the surface of BCP scaffolds was confirmed by an increase in the N content. As the amount of added ALN increased, N content increased from 0% for BCP, 4.60% for ALN (0.1 mg)/BCP, and 8.03% for ALN (1 mg)/BCP scaffolds (Table 1). The loading of ALN on the surface of BCP scaffolds was also confirmed with ATR-FTIR. As shown in Figure 2, the characteristic absorption peaks of orthophosphate (PO4) were observed at 940–1120 cm−1 and 566 cm−1 on BCP and the two ALN/BCP scaffolds. As the amount of added ALN increased, the characteristic peaks for alendronates were observed at 926 cm−1 (hydroxyl groups) and 1020 cm−1 and 1050 cm−1 (P=O stretch) and their peak intensities increased.

Bottom Line: The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone.Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rare Diseases Institute, Korea University Medical College, Guro Hospital, No. 80, Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN-) eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

No MeSH data available.