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Ultrasonography-Based Thyroidal and Perithyroidal Anatomy and Its Clinical Significance.

Ha EJ, Baek JH, Lee JH - Korean J Radiol (2015)

Bottom Line: For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential.Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures.Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-380, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Ultrasonography (US)-guided procedures such as ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, selective nerve block, and core needle biopsy have been widely applied in the diagnosis and management of thyroid and neck lesions. For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential. However, most previous reports evaluated neck anatomy based on cadavers, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging rather than US. Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures. Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck lesions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transverse ultrasonography images of MCSG.A. Schematic drawing of cervical sympathetic ganglions. (B, C) MCSG (arrowheads) can be located both medially and laterally to common carotid artery, (D) in front of inferior thyroidal artery (arrowhead) at level of thyroid gland. ICSG = inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion, MCSG = middle cervical sympathetic ganglion, SCSG = superior cervical sympathetic ganglion
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Figure 9: Transverse ultrasonography images of MCSG.A. Schematic drawing of cervical sympathetic ganglions. (B, C) MCSG (arrowheads) can be located both medially and laterally to common carotid artery, (D) in front of inferior thyroidal artery (arrowhead) at level of thyroid gland. ICSG = inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion, MCSG = middle cervical sympathetic ganglion, SCSG = superior cervical sympathetic ganglion

Mentions: The cervical sympathetic ganglion (CSG) consists of 3 paravertebral ganglia. The superior CSG is the largest, and is located anterior to the longus capitis muscle at the C2-3 vertebra level; the middle CSG is the smallest, and is located anterior to the longus colli muscle at the C5-7 vertebra level; the inferior CSG is intermediate in size, and is commonly fused with the first thoracic ganglion to form a stellate ganglion at the C7-T1 vertebra level (39). Because the middle CSG is located at the lower level of the thyroid gland, it can be injured during procedures for thyroid lesions. The middle CSG can be visualized in 41% of US images, and is seen as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic structure with a mean diameter of 3.8 ± 1.5 mm and a length of 8.7 ± 3.2 mm on US (40). It is usually located lateral to the CCA, but can also be located medial to the CCA (Fig. 9) (40). Because the middle CSG is located in front of, or close to, the inferior thyroidal artery, it is an anatomic landmark for the identification of the middle CSG (1739404142). A typical location and direct continuity with the nerve structure are characteristic US features of the middle CSG (40).


Ultrasonography-Based Thyroidal and Perithyroidal Anatomy and Its Clinical Significance.

Ha EJ, Baek JH, Lee JH - Korean J Radiol (2015)

Transverse ultrasonography images of MCSG.A. Schematic drawing of cervical sympathetic ganglions. (B, C) MCSG (arrowheads) can be located both medially and laterally to common carotid artery, (D) in front of inferior thyroidal artery (arrowhead) at level of thyroid gland. ICSG = inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion, MCSG = middle cervical sympathetic ganglion, SCSG = superior cervical sympathetic ganglion
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4499539&req=5

Figure 9: Transverse ultrasonography images of MCSG.A. Schematic drawing of cervical sympathetic ganglions. (B, C) MCSG (arrowheads) can be located both medially and laterally to common carotid artery, (D) in front of inferior thyroidal artery (arrowhead) at level of thyroid gland. ICSG = inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion, MCSG = middle cervical sympathetic ganglion, SCSG = superior cervical sympathetic ganglion
Mentions: The cervical sympathetic ganglion (CSG) consists of 3 paravertebral ganglia. The superior CSG is the largest, and is located anterior to the longus capitis muscle at the C2-3 vertebra level; the middle CSG is the smallest, and is located anterior to the longus colli muscle at the C5-7 vertebra level; the inferior CSG is intermediate in size, and is commonly fused with the first thoracic ganglion to form a stellate ganglion at the C7-T1 vertebra level (39). Because the middle CSG is located at the lower level of the thyroid gland, it can be injured during procedures for thyroid lesions. The middle CSG can be visualized in 41% of US images, and is seen as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic structure with a mean diameter of 3.8 ± 1.5 mm and a length of 8.7 ± 3.2 mm on US (40). It is usually located lateral to the CCA, but can also be located medial to the CCA (Fig. 9) (40). Because the middle CSG is located in front of, or close to, the inferior thyroidal artery, it is an anatomic landmark for the identification of the middle CSG (1739404142). A typical location and direct continuity with the nerve structure are characteristic US features of the middle CSG (40).

Bottom Line: For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential.Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures.Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck lesions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-380, Korea.

ABSTRACT
Ultrasonography (US)-guided procedures such as ethanol ablation, radiofrequency ablation, laser ablation, selective nerve block, and core needle biopsy have been widely applied in the diagnosis and management of thyroid and neck lesions. For a safe and effective US-guided procedure, knowledge of neck anatomy, particularly that of the nerves, vessels, and other critical structures, is essential. However, most previous reports evaluated neck anatomy based on cadavers, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging rather than US. Therefore, the aim of this article was to elucidate US-based thyroidal and perithyroidal anatomy, as well as its clinical significance in the use of prevention techniques for complications during the US-guided procedures. Knowledge of these areas may be helpful for maximizing the efficacy and minimizing the complications of US-guided procedures for the thyroid and other neck lesions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus