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Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage.

Owusu-Ofori S, Kusi J, Owusu-Ofori A, Freimanis G, Olver C, Martinez CR, Wilkinson S, Mundt JM, Keil SD, Goodrich RP, Allain JP - Shock (2015)

Bottom Line: Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety.After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification.This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: *Transfusion Medicine Unit and †Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology/Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana; ‡Dept of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; and §Colorado State University, Ft Collins; and ∥Terumo BCT, Lakewood, Colorado.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety.

Methods: Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage.

Results: Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10-100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB.

Conclusions: Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of Plasmodium gEq levels in KATH blood donors.
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Figure 1: Distribution of Plasmodium gEq levels in KATH blood donors.

Mentions: The distribution of parasitemia is shown in Figure 1. The majority of parasitemic donors carried levels between 10 and 1,000 gEq/mL, and only six were more than 5,000 gEq/mL. The limit of quantification for the qPCR assay is such that it can be applied only to samples containing more than 5,000 gEq/mL. As a result, only samples from unit 4: 3 × 104; unit 19: 5.7 × 103; unit 22: 4.5 × 103; unit 29: 3.5 × 105; unit 31: 5.2 × 105; and unit 35: 5.0 × 104 could be evaluated with the assay. Results shown in Table 1 were generally reproducible across the 6 U treated with 80 J/mLRBC energy. Log inhibition of the 2,316–base pair (bp) amplicon, the longest amplicon tested, ranged between 0.49 and 1.23 (mean, 0.78). Log inhibition of the amplification increased as the size of the amplicon increased, as expected and as has been reported previously (16–19). In 3 U, further treated to 120 J/mLRBC, the level of log inhibition did not increase notably (data not shown).


Treatment of Whole Blood With Riboflavin and UV Light: Impact on Malaria Parasite Viability and Whole Blood Storage.

Owusu-Ofori S, Kusi J, Owusu-Ofori A, Freimanis G, Olver C, Martinez CR, Wilkinson S, Mundt JM, Keil SD, Goodrich RP, Allain JP - Shock (2015)

Distribution of Plasmodium gEq levels in KATH blood donors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4498649&req=5

Figure 1: Distribution of Plasmodium gEq levels in KATH blood donors.
Mentions: The distribution of parasitemia is shown in Figure 1. The majority of parasitemic donors carried levels between 10 and 1,000 gEq/mL, and only six were more than 5,000 gEq/mL. The limit of quantification for the qPCR assay is such that it can be applied only to samples containing more than 5,000 gEq/mL. As a result, only samples from unit 4: 3 × 104; unit 19: 5.7 × 103; unit 22: 4.5 × 103; unit 29: 3.5 × 105; unit 31: 5.2 × 105; and unit 35: 5.0 × 104 could be evaluated with the assay. Results shown in Table 1 were generally reproducible across the 6 U treated with 80 J/mLRBC energy. Log inhibition of the 2,316–base pair (bp) amplicon, the longest amplicon tested, ranged between 0.49 and 1.23 (mean, 0.78). Log inhibition of the amplification increased as the size of the amplicon increased, as expected and as has been reported previously (16–19). In 3 U, further treated to 120 J/mLRBC, the level of log inhibition did not increase notably (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety.After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification.This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: *Transfusion Medicine Unit and †Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology/Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana; ‡Dept of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; and §Colorado State University, Ft Collins; and ∥Terumo BCT, Lakewood, Colorado.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sub-Saharan African countries utilize whole blood (WB) to treat severe anemia secondary to severe blood loss or malaria on an emergency basis. In many areas with high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible agents, blood safety measures are insufficient. Pathogen reduction technology applied to WB might considerably improve blood safety.

Methods: Whole blood from 40 different donors were treated with riboflavin and UV light (pathogen reduction technology) in order to inactivate malaria parasite replication. The extent of parasite inactivation was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and was correlated to studies evaluating the replication of malaria parasites in culture. Products were also stored for 21 days at +4°C and monitored for cell quality throughout storage.

Results: Plasmodium amplicon was present in 21 samples (>100 copies/mL), doubtful in four (10-100 genome equivalents [gEq]/mL), and negative in 15 U. The majority of asymptomatic parasitemic donors carried low parasite levels, with only six donors above 5,000 copies/mL (15%). After treatment with riboflavin and UV light, these six samples demonstrated a 0.5 to 1.2 log reduction in quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. This correlated to equal to or greater than 6.4 log reductions in infectivity. In treated WB units, cell quality parameters remained stable; however, plasma hemoglobin increased to 0.15 g/dL. All markers behaved similarly to published data for stored, untreated WB.

Conclusions: Pathogen reduction technology treatment can inactivate malaria parasites in WB while maintaining adequate blood quality during posttreatment cold storage for 21 days.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus