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Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

Field BA, Buck CL, McClure SM, Nystrom LE, Kahneman D, Cohen JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling.Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine.This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08540, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Load did not affect the checkerboard BOLD response.This shows BOLD responses to the flickering checkerboard stimulus within a predefined AFNI anatomical mask for BA 17. This region exhibited no significant n-back modulation. Estimated hemodynamic responses are statistically independently of the ROI selection (a predefined anatomical mask). Error bars show s.e.m.
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pone.0130880.g003: Load did not affect the checkerboard BOLD response.This shows BOLD responses to the flickering checkerboard stimulus within a predefined AFNI anatomical mask for BA 17. This region exhibited no significant n-back modulation. Estimated hemodynamic responses are statistically independently of the ROI selection (a predefined anatomical mask). Error bars show s.e.m.

Mentions: One possible alternative explanation of our findings is that attentional load produced a global, non-specific reduction in responses within the brain—due either to a redistribution of neural activity and/or blood flow responses—that was not specific to the effects of attention on valuation processes. To test this, we evaluated the response in primary visual cortex to a visual checkerboard stimulus. The average checkerboard-driven response of this region was not significantly changed by load (t(15) = 1.137, p = 0.273, difference in means 0.00047, 95% confidence interval -0.00046 to 0.00048). Fig 3 shows this region along with responses in both the low and high-load checkerboard conditions. As a control, we also confirmed that the regions in the ANOVA interaction term showed no checkerboard-load interaction. We ran a contrast of high versus low load on checkerboard-driven responses, but no voxels in the interaction term showed a significant effect of load.


Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

Field BA, Buck CL, McClure SM, Nystrom LE, Kahneman D, Cohen JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Load did not affect the checkerboard BOLD response.This shows BOLD responses to the flickering checkerboard stimulus within a predefined AFNI anatomical mask for BA 17. This region exhibited no significant n-back modulation. Estimated hemodynamic responses are statistically independently of the ROI selection (a predefined anatomical mask). Error bars show s.e.m.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4497686&req=5

pone.0130880.g003: Load did not affect the checkerboard BOLD response.This shows BOLD responses to the flickering checkerboard stimulus within a predefined AFNI anatomical mask for BA 17. This region exhibited no significant n-back modulation. Estimated hemodynamic responses are statistically independently of the ROI selection (a predefined anatomical mask). Error bars show s.e.m.
Mentions: One possible alternative explanation of our findings is that attentional load produced a global, non-specific reduction in responses within the brain—due either to a redistribution of neural activity and/or blood flow responses—that was not specific to the effects of attention on valuation processes. To test this, we evaluated the response in primary visual cortex to a visual checkerboard stimulus. The average checkerboard-driven response of this region was not significantly changed by load (t(15) = 1.137, p = 0.273, difference in means 0.00047, 95% confidence interval -0.00046 to 0.00048). Fig 3 shows this region along with responses in both the low and high-load checkerboard conditions. As a control, we also confirmed that the regions in the ANOVA interaction term showed no checkerboard-load interaction. We ran a contrast of high versus low load on checkerboard-driven responses, but no voxels in the interaction term showed a significant effect of load.

Bottom Line: This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling.Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine.This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08540, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus