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Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

Ramakrishnan A, Ifft PJ, Pais-Vieira M, Byun YW, Zhuang KZ, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour.With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan.These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA [2] Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental setups for B2 and B3 experiments.(A) Monkeys were seated in separate rooms, each facing a computer monitor showing the virtual avatar arm (inset in C) from a 1st person perspective. (B) Shows the shared control task, (X,Y) position of the virtual arm was decoded during centre-out movements from the two monkeys’ brains with each given 50% control of the arm. Electrode array location shown on brains. (C) Shows the partitioned control task. X position of the arm was decoded from one monkey and Y position from the other during centre-out movements toward targets. (D) Shows the 3-monkey task. Each monkey observed and had 50% control over 2 of the 3 dimensions (X, Y, or Z). Together, the three monkeys must accurately perform a 3-D centre-out movement to achieve reward. Drawings by Miguel A.L. Nicolelis.
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f1: Experimental setups for B2 and B3 experiments.(A) Monkeys were seated in separate rooms, each facing a computer monitor showing the virtual avatar arm (inset in C) from a 1st person perspective. (B) Shows the shared control task, (X,Y) position of the virtual arm was decoded during centre-out movements from the two monkeys’ brains with each given 50% control of the arm. Electrode array location shown on brains. (C) Shows the partitioned control task. X position of the arm was decoded from one monkey and Y position from the other during centre-out movements toward targets. (D) Shows the 3-monkey task. Each monkey observed and had 50% control over 2 of the 3 dimensions (X, Y, or Z). Together, the three monkeys must accurately perform a 3-D centre-out movement to achieve reward. Drawings by Miguel A.L. Nicolelis.

Mentions: To this end, we have implemented Brainet architectures consisting of two (B2) (Fig. 1B,C) or three (B3) (Fig. 1A,D) monkey brains. These Brainets (i) controlled 2D/3D movements of an avatar arm by sharing signals derived from multiple brains (Fig. 1B,D), (ii) partitioned control by delegating subtasks to different subjects (Fig. 1C,D) and (iii) enabled a super-task that was composed of individual BMI tasks (Fig. 1A,D).


Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

Ramakrishnan A, Ifft PJ, Pais-Vieira M, Byun YW, Zhuang KZ, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA - Sci Rep (2015)

Experimental setups for B2 and B3 experiments.(A) Monkeys were seated in separate rooms, each facing a computer monitor showing the virtual avatar arm (inset in C) from a 1st person perspective. (B) Shows the shared control task, (X,Y) position of the virtual arm was decoded during centre-out movements from the two monkeys’ brains with each given 50% control of the arm. Electrode array location shown on brains. (C) Shows the partitioned control task. X position of the arm was decoded from one monkey and Y position from the other during centre-out movements toward targets. (D) Shows the 3-monkey task. Each monkey observed and had 50% control over 2 of the 3 dimensions (X, Y, or Z). Together, the three monkeys must accurately perform a 3-D centre-out movement to achieve reward. Drawings by Miguel A.L. Nicolelis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4497496&req=5

f1: Experimental setups for B2 and B3 experiments.(A) Monkeys were seated in separate rooms, each facing a computer monitor showing the virtual avatar arm (inset in C) from a 1st person perspective. (B) Shows the shared control task, (X,Y) position of the virtual arm was decoded during centre-out movements from the two monkeys’ brains with each given 50% control of the arm. Electrode array location shown on brains. (C) Shows the partitioned control task. X position of the arm was decoded from one monkey and Y position from the other during centre-out movements toward targets. (D) Shows the 3-monkey task. Each monkey observed and had 50% control over 2 of the 3 dimensions (X, Y, or Z). Together, the three monkeys must accurately perform a 3-D centre-out movement to achieve reward. Drawings by Miguel A.L. Nicolelis.
Mentions: To this end, we have implemented Brainet architectures consisting of two (B2) (Fig. 1B,C) or three (B3) (Fig. 1A,D) monkey brains. These Brainets (i) controlled 2D/3D movements of an avatar arm by sharing signals derived from multiple brains (Fig. 1B,D), (ii) partitioned control by delegating subtasks to different subjects (Fig. 1C,D) and (iii) enabled a super-task that was composed of individual BMI tasks (Fig. 1A,D).

Bottom Line: Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour.With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan.These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA [2] Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

No MeSH data available.