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Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review.

Kruse J, Abraham M, Amelung W, Baum C, Bol R, Kühn O, Lewandowski H, Niederberger J, Oelmann Y, Rüger C, Santner J, Siebers M, Siebers N, Spohn M, Vestergren J, Vogts A, Leinweber P - J Plant Nutr Soil Sci (1999) (2015)

Bottom Line: Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development.This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research.Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Soil Science, Faculty for Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, 18051 Rostock, Germany ; Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, (33)P isotopic exchange, (18)O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phospholipid composition of soils from four different sites (arable: crest and depression, forest: pine and spruce) in Northern Germany as determined by Q-TOF MS/MS analysis (n = 5). (a) Total concentration of major phospholipid classes (phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidic acid, PA) in nmol mg−1 soil dry weight (DW). (b) Molecular species composition (mol%) of PS, PC, PE, PG, PI and PA. The data present means and standard deviations of five replicas (Siebers et al., 2013, unpublished).
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fig07: Phospholipid composition of soils from four different sites (arable: crest and depression, forest: pine and spruce) in Northern Germany as determined by Q-TOF MS/MS analysis (n = 5). (a) Total concentration of major phospholipid classes (phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidic acid, PA) in nmol mg−1 soil dry weight (DW). (b) Molecular species composition (mol%) of PS, PC, PE, PG, PI and PA. The data present means and standard deviations of five replicas (Siebers et al., 2013, unpublished).

Mentions: A pioneer application of Q-TOF MS/MS analysis to characterize and quantify the molecular species composition of different phospholipid classes was this review was conducted on soils from four different variants at arable and forest sites (Fig.7): arable topsoils in crest and depression positions and forest topsoils under pine and spruce. Almost all phospholipid classes (PS, PC, PE, PG, and PI) showed site-specific variations in the total concentrations (Fig.7a), reflecting differences in their microbial and plant-derived phospholipids. In particular, the molecular species patterns of PC, PE, and PG differ greatly among arable and forest test sites. The concentration of C16:1 and C18:1-containing molecular species of PC and PE are significantly larger in the arable while the concentrations of C18:2-containing molecular species of PC and PE are larger in the forest soils (Fig.7b). The total concentrations of PC and PE, as most abundant classes of phospholipids in eukaryotic cells, are significantly larger in the slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.3 to 7.1) fertile arable than in the acidic (pH 4.1 to 4.8) nutrient-deficient forest soils. Oleic acid (C18:1) was mainly present in the di-unsaturated species 36:2 (C18:1/C18:1). It is a main component of PG in diverse plant materials, with increased concentrations in some arable crops (e.g., oilseed rape), but also as a component in conifers (Piispanen and Saranpää, 2002). Furthermore, C18:1 and also C16:1-containing molecular species of PC and PE originate also from bacterial biomass (Frostegård and Bååth, 1996). The C18:2-containing molecular species of PC and PE were described as dominant components of phospholids in litter under pine and spruce (Wilkinson et al., 2002), indicating fungal biomass (White et al., 1996).


Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review.

Kruse J, Abraham M, Amelung W, Baum C, Bol R, Kühn O, Lewandowski H, Niederberger J, Oelmann Y, Rüger C, Santner J, Siebers M, Siebers N, Spohn M, Vestergren J, Vogts A, Leinweber P - J Plant Nutr Soil Sci (1999) (2015)

Phospholipid composition of soils from four different sites (arable: crest and depression, forest: pine and spruce) in Northern Germany as determined by Q-TOF MS/MS analysis (n = 5). (a) Total concentration of major phospholipid classes (phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidic acid, PA) in nmol mg−1 soil dry weight (DW). (b) Molecular species composition (mol%) of PS, PC, PE, PG, PI and PA. The data present means and standard deviations of five replicas (Siebers et al., 2013, unpublished).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4497464&req=5

fig07: Phospholipid composition of soils from four different sites (arable: crest and depression, forest: pine and spruce) in Northern Germany as determined by Q-TOF MS/MS analysis (n = 5). (a) Total concentration of major phospholipid classes (phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidic acid, PA) in nmol mg−1 soil dry weight (DW). (b) Molecular species composition (mol%) of PS, PC, PE, PG, PI and PA. The data present means and standard deviations of five replicas (Siebers et al., 2013, unpublished).
Mentions: A pioneer application of Q-TOF MS/MS analysis to characterize and quantify the molecular species composition of different phospholipid classes was this review was conducted on soils from four different variants at arable and forest sites (Fig.7): arable topsoils in crest and depression positions and forest topsoils under pine and spruce. Almost all phospholipid classes (PS, PC, PE, PG, and PI) showed site-specific variations in the total concentrations (Fig.7a), reflecting differences in their microbial and plant-derived phospholipids. In particular, the molecular species patterns of PC, PE, and PG differ greatly among arable and forest test sites. The concentration of C16:1 and C18:1-containing molecular species of PC and PE are significantly larger in the arable while the concentrations of C18:2-containing molecular species of PC and PE are larger in the forest soils (Fig.7b). The total concentrations of PC and PE, as most abundant classes of phospholipids in eukaryotic cells, are significantly larger in the slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.3 to 7.1) fertile arable than in the acidic (pH 4.1 to 4.8) nutrient-deficient forest soils. Oleic acid (C18:1) was mainly present in the di-unsaturated species 36:2 (C18:1/C18:1). It is a main component of PG in diverse plant materials, with increased concentrations in some arable crops (e.g., oilseed rape), but also as a component in conifers (Piispanen and Saranpää, 2002). Furthermore, C18:1 and also C16:1-containing molecular species of PC and PE originate also from bacterial biomass (Frostegård and Bååth, 1996). The C18:2-containing molecular species of PC and PE were described as dominant components of phospholids in litter under pine and spruce (Wilkinson et al., 2002), indicating fungal biomass (White et al., 1996).

Bottom Line: Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development.This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research.Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Soil Science, Faculty for Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, 18051 Rostock, Germany ; Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, (33)P isotopic exchange, (18)O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus