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Transcriptional fingerprinting of "browning" white fat identifies NRG4 as a novel adipokine.

Christian M - Adipocyte (2014)

Bottom Line: The dissipation of energy in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is in stark contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT) which is the body's primary site of energy storage.However, adipose tissue is highly dynamic and upon cold exposure profound changes occur in WAT resulting in a BAT-like phenotype due to the presence of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes.In our recent report, transcription profiling was used to identify the gene expression changes that underlie the browning process as well as the intrinsic differences between BAT and WAT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health; Warwick Medical School; University of Warwick ; Coventry, UK.

ABSTRACT
Brown adipocytes help to maintain body temperature by the expression of a unique set of genes that facilitate cellular metabolic events including uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis. The dissipation of energy in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is in stark contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT) which is the body's primary site of energy storage. However, adipose tissue is highly dynamic and upon cold exposure profound changes occur in WAT resulting in a BAT-like phenotype due to the presence of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes. In our recent report, transcription profiling was used to identify the gene expression changes that underlie the browning process as well as the intrinsic differences between BAT and WAT. Neuregulin 4 was categorized as a cold-induced BAT gene encoding an adipokine that signals between adipocytes and nerve cells and likely to have a role in increasing adipose tissue innervation in response to cold.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NRG4 is brown adipocyte adipokine that promotes neurite outgrowth. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is more highly expressed in brown adipocytes compared to white adipocytes. Upon cold exposure, norepinephrine (NE) is secreted and activates brown fat as well as initiating the “browning” of white fat resulting in upregulated Nrg4 mRNA. NRG4 is secreted by brown adipocytes and can signal to neurons to promote neurite outgrowth. Thus, NRG4 is a brown/brown-in-white (BRITE) adipokine that has a potential role in enhancing sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues needed to activate thermogenic functions.
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f0001: NRG4 is brown adipocyte adipokine that promotes neurite outgrowth. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is more highly expressed in brown adipocytes compared to white adipocytes. Upon cold exposure, norepinephrine (NE) is secreted and activates brown fat as well as initiating the “browning” of white fat resulting in upregulated Nrg4 mRNA. NRG4 is secreted by brown adipocytes and can signal to neurons to promote neurite outgrowth. Thus, NRG4 is a brown/brown-in-white (BRITE) adipokine that has a potential role in enhancing sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues needed to activate thermogenic functions.

Mentions: Following our analysis of mRNA expression in discrete adipose tissue depots we identified NRG4 as an adipokine primarily expressed by brown adipocytes that promotes neurite growth (Fig. 1) and therefore has the capacity to affect BAT sympathetic tone and facilitate thermogenic functions. As adult humans possess functional BAT NRG4 could be a new therapeutic target with the potential to increase BAT and BRITE adipocyte sensitivity to adrenergic signaling. The regulation of Nrg4 expression is only one example of the transcriptional events that underpin the WAT to BAT transition. Future investigations of the genes associated with the BRITE transcription signature could help develop new strategies to modulate energy balance for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.Figure 1.


Transcriptional fingerprinting of "browning" white fat identifies NRG4 as a novel adipokine.

Christian M - Adipocyte (2014)

NRG4 is brown adipocyte adipokine that promotes neurite outgrowth. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is more highly expressed in brown adipocytes compared to white adipocytes. Upon cold exposure, norepinephrine (NE) is secreted and activates brown fat as well as initiating the “browning” of white fat resulting in upregulated Nrg4 mRNA. NRG4 is secreted by brown adipocytes and can signal to neurons to promote neurite outgrowth. Thus, NRG4 is a brown/brown-in-white (BRITE) adipokine that has a potential role in enhancing sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues needed to activate thermogenic functions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496975&req=5

f0001: NRG4 is brown adipocyte adipokine that promotes neurite outgrowth. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is more highly expressed in brown adipocytes compared to white adipocytes. Upon cold exposure, norepinephrine (NE) is secreted and activates brown fat as well as initiating the “browning” of white fat resulting in upregulated Nrg4 mRNA. NRG4 is secreted by brown adipocytes and can signal to neurons to promote neurite outgrowth. Thus, NRG4 is a brown/brown-in-white (BRITE) adipokine that has a potential role in enhancing sympathetic innervation of adipose tissues needed to activate thermogenic functions.
Mentions: Following our analysis of mRNA expression in discrete adipose tissue depots we identified NRG4 as an adipokine primarily expressed by brown adipocytes that promotes neurite growth (Fig. 1) and therefore has the capacity to affect BAT sympathetic tone and facilitate thermogenic functions. As adult humans possess functional BAT NRG4 could be a new therapeutic target with the potential to increase BAT and BRITE adipocyte sensitivity to adrenergic signaling. The regulation of Nrg4 expression is only one example of the transcriptional events that underpin the WAT to BAT transition. Future investigations of the genes associated with the BRITE transcription signature could help develop new strategies to modulate energy balance for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: The dissipation of energy in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is in stark contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT) which is the body's primary site of energy storage.However, adipose tissue is highly dynamic and upon cold exposure profound changes occur in WAT resulting in a BAT-like phenotype due to the presence of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes.In our recent report, transcription profiling was used to identify the gene expression changes that underlie the browning process as well as the intrinsic differences between BAT and WAT.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health; Warwick Medical School; University of Warwick ; Coventry, UK.

ABSTRACT
Brown adipocytes help to maintain body temperature by the expression of a unique set of genes that facilitate cellular metabolic events including uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis. The dissipation of energy in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is in stark contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT) which is the body's primary site of energy storage. However, adipose tissue is highly dynamic and upon cold exposure profound changes occur in WAT resulting in a BAT-like phenotype due to the presence of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes. In our recent report, transcription profiling was used to identify the gene expression changes that underlie the browning process as well as the intrinsic differences between BAT and WAT. Neuregulin 4 was categorized as a cold-induced BAT gene encoding an adipokine that signals between adipocytes and nerve cells and likely to have a role in increasing adipose tissue innervation in response to cold.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus