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Nanosecond pulsed electric field inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma.

Miao X, Yin S, Shao Z, Zhang Y, Chen X - J Orthop Surg Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The inhibitory effect of nsPEF on the growth of MG-63 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay at different time points (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h post nsPEF treatment).The CCK-8 assay showed that nsPEF induced a distinct electric field strength- and pulse number-dependent reduction of cell proliferation.PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that nsPEF up-regulated OPG expression had no effect on RANKL, increased OPG/RANKL ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Orthopedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Recent studies suggest that nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel minimal invasive and non-thermal ablation method that can induce apoptosis in different solid tumors. But the efficacy of nsPEF on bone-related tumors or bone metastasis is kept unknown. The current study investigates antitumor effect of nsPEF on osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in vitro.

Method: MG-63 cells were treated with nsPEF with different electric field strengths (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 kV/cm) and different pulse numbers (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 pulses). The inhibitory effect of nsPEF on the growth of MG-63 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay at different time points (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h post nsPEF treatment). The apoptosis was analyzed by Hoechst stain, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was examined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot.

Results: The CCK-8 assay showed that nsPEF induced a distinct electric field strength- and pulse number-dependent reduction of cell proliferation. For treatment parameter optimizing, the condition 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses at 24 h post nsPEF achieved the most significant apoptotic induction rate. Hoechst, TUNEL, and flow cytometric analysis showed that the cell apoptosis was induced and cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase. PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that nsPEF up-regulated OPG expression had no effect on RANKL, increased OPG/RANKL ratio.

Conclusion: NsPEF inhibits osteosarcoma growth, induces apoptosis, and affects bone metabolism by up-regulating OPG, indicating nsPEF-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. NsPEF has potential to treat osteosarcoma or bone metastasis. When nsPEF is applied on metastatic bone tumors, it might be beneficial by inducing osteoblastic differentiation without cancer proliferation. In the future, nsPEF might be one of the treatments of metastatic bone tumor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Apoptosis induction at different times post nsPEF treatment. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (aupper lane) and TUNEL (alower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in (b) at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). The apoptotic cells were significant in 24 h post nsPEF treatment. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (c) and statistically analyzed in (d), which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase
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Fig2: Apoptosis induction at different times post nsPEF treatment. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (aupper lane) and TUNEL (alower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in (b) at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). The apoptotic cells were significant in 24 h post nsPEF treatment. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (c) and statistically analyzed in (d), which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase

Mentions: To determine the effects of nsPEF on the induction of apoptosis in MG-63 cells, the Annexin V assay was performed. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (Fig. 2a upper lane) and TUNEL (Fig. 2a lower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in Fig. 2b at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). Apoptotic cells induced by nsPEF treatment were recognized by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the terminal end of nucleic acids. The number or percentages of apoptotic cells detected following nsPEF treatment was shown in Fig. 2b. The quantitative analysis showed the percentages of apoptotic cells detected following nsPEF treatment which were 2.6 % (0 h), 8.8 % (3 h), 21 % (12 h), 42 % (24 h), and 15 % (48 h) without nsPEF treatment. The apoptotic induction 12 and 24 h post nsPEF treatment showed significance (P = 0.01243, 0.00081, respectively, vs control). The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (Fig. 2c) and statistically analyzed in Fig. 2d, which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase (Fig. 2d).Fig. 2


Nanosecond pulsed electric field inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma.

Miao X, Yin S, Shao Z, Zhang Y, Chen X - J Orthop Surg Res (2015)

Apoptosis induction at different times post nsPEF treatment. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (aupper lane) and TUNEL (alower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in (b) at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). The apoptotic cells were significant in 24 h post nsPEF treatment. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (c) and statistically analyzed in (d), which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496869&req=5

Fig2: Apoptosis induction at different times post nsPEF treatment. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (aupper lane) and TUNEL (alower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in (b) at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). The apoptotic cells were significant in 24 h post nsPEF treatment. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (c) and statistically analyzed in (d), which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase
Mentions: To determine the effects of nsPEF on the induction of apoptosis in MG-63 cells, the Annexin V assay was performed. After 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses of nsPEF treatment, the control and treated cells were stained with Hoechst 33528 (Fig. 2a upper lane) and TUNEL (Fig. 2a lower lane). The statistical analysis of the positive apoptotic cells were counted and shown in Fig. 2b at different hours (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h). Apoptotic cells induced by nsPEF treatment were recognized by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the terminal end of nucleic acids. The number or percentages of apoptotic cells detected following nsPEF treatment was shown in Fig. 2b. The quantitative analysis showed the percentages of apoptotic cells detected following nsPEF treatment which were 2.6 % (0 h), 8.8 % (3 h), 21 % (12 h), 42 % (24 h), and 15 % (48 h) without nsPEF treatment. The apoptotic induction 12 and 24 h post nsPEF treatment showed significance (P = 0.01243, 0.00081, respectively, vs control). The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (Fig. 2c) and statistically analyzed in Fig. 2d, which indicates that nsPEF arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase (Fig. 2d).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The inhibitory effect of nsPEF on the growth of MG-63 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay at different time points (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h post nsPEF treatment).The CCK-8 assay showed that nsPEF induced a distinct electric field strength- and pulse number-dependent reduction of cell proliferation.PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that nsPEF up-regulated OPG expression had no effect on RANKL, increased OPG/RANKL ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Orthopedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Recent studies suggest that nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel minimal invasive and non-thermal ablation method that can induce apoptosis in different solid tumors. But the efficacy of nsPEF on bone-related tumors or bone metastasis is kept unknown. The current study investigates antitumor effect of nsPEF on osteosarcoma MG-63 cells in vitro.

Method: MG-63 cells were treated with nsPEF with different electric field strengths (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 kV/cm) and different pulse numbers (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 pulses). The inhibitory effect of nsPEF on the growth of MG-63 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay at different time points (0, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h post nsPEF treatment). The apoptosis was analyzed by Hoechst stain, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was examined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot.

Results: The CCK-8 assay showed that nsPEF induced a distinct electric field strength- and pulse number-dependent reduction of cell proliferation. For treatment parameter optimizing, the condition 40 kV/cm and 30 pulses at 24 h post nsPEF achieved the most significant apoptotic induction rate. Hoechst, TUNEL, and flow cytometric analysis showed that the cell apoptosis was induced and cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase. PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that nsPEF up-regulated OPG expression had no effect on RANKL, increased OPG/RANKL ratio.

Conclusion: NsPEF inhibits osteosarcoma growth, induces apoptosis, and affects bone metabolism by up-regulating OPG, indicating nsPEF-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. NsPEF has potential to treat osteosarcoma or bone metastasis. When nsPEF is applied on metastatic bone tumors, it might be beneficial by inducing osteoblastic differentiation without cancer proliferation. In the future, nsPEF might be one of the treatments of metastatic bone tumor.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus