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The electronic stethoscope.

Leng S, Tan RS, Chai KT, Wang C, Ghista D, Zhong L - Biomed Eng Online (2015)

Bottom Line: Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces.Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically.The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169609, Singapore. leng.shuang@nhcs.com.sg.

ABSTRACT
Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sensor, pre-amplifier, anti-aliasing, audio CODEC and denoising in an electronic stethoscope [30].
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Fig6: Sensor, pre-amplifier, anti-aliasing, audio CODEC and denoising in an electronic stethoscope [30].

Mentions: The signal captured by the sensor of the electronic stethoscope is fed into the pre-amplifier and anti-aliasing circuit as discussed in earlier section. Figure 6 shows the two stages of the signal path from the stethoscope pickup with a microphone as the sensor [30]; therein, the signal from the microphone goes through an amplifier with a gain of 20, followed by an anti-aliasing low pass filter using OPA134 with a cut-off frequency at 2 kHz. The audio CODEC block and signal denoising block are also shown in Figure 6; the CODEC block is a single device that encodes analog sound signal as digital signals and decodes digital back into analog; the denoising block is used to suppress the unwanted noises. The detailed discussion on the HS denoising will be provided in the following subsection.Figure 6


The electronic stethoscope.

Leng S, Tan RS, Chai KT, Wang C, Ghista D, Zhong L - Biomed Eng Online (2015)

Sensor, pre-amplifier, anti-aliasing, audio CODEC and denoising in an electronic stethoscope [30].
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496820&req=5

Fig6: Sensor, pre-amplifier, anti-aliasing, audio CODEC and denoising in an electronic stethoscope [30].
Mentions: The signal captured by the sensor of the electronic stethoscope is fed into the pre-amplifier and anti-aliasing circuit as discussed in earlier section. Figure 6 shows the two stages of the signal path from the stethoscope pickup with a microphone as the sensor [30]; therein, the signal from the microphone goes through an amplifier with a gain of 20, followed by an anti-aliasing low pass filter using OPA134 with a cut-off frequency at 2 kHz. The audio CODEC block and signal denoising block are also shown in Figure 6; the CODEC block is a single device that encodes analog sound signal as digital signals and decodes digital back into analog; the denoising block is used to suppress the unwanted noises. The detailed discussion on the HS denoising will be provided in the following subsection.Figure 6

Bottom Line: Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces.Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically.The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169609, Singapore. leng.shuang@nhcs.com.sg.

ABSTRACT
Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus