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The electronic stethoscope.

Leng S, Tan RS, Chai KT, Wang C, Ghista D, Zhong L - Biomed Eng Online (2015)

Bottom Line: Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces.Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically.The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169609, Singapore. leng.shuang@nhcs.com.sg.

ABSTRACT
Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a Illustration of the working principle of the MEMS microphone, b cross sectional diagram of the capacitive MEMS microphone.
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Fig5: a Illustration of the working principle of the MEMS microphone, b cross sectional diagram of the capacitive MEMS microphone.

Mentions: The capacitive-type sensor based on the Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology detects acoustic pressure with a change in its nominal capacitance value [25–29]. Figure 5a shows the working principle of the capacitive MEMS sensor. The center piece which is the diaphragm is a suspended weight (proof mass) that is free to move. This proof mass is electrically isolated from a static fixed structure depicted by the fixed comb in Figure 5b, thus having a nominal capacitance value between them. When the diaphragm is subjected to an acoustic pressure source, it will start to move in harmony with the source thus causing changes in its nominal capacitance value. The capacitive MEMS sensor has the advantage of small size, mass production and better temperature stability. In addition, it is compatible with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology; hence, when combined with integrated circuit it makes it possible to develop high performance HS sensor system.Figure 5


The electronic stethoscope.

Leng S, Tan RS, Chai KT, Wang C, Ghista D, Zhong L - Biomed Eng Online (2015)

a Illustration of the working principle of the MEMS microphone, b cross sectional diagram of the capacitive MEMS microphone.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496820&req=5

Fig5: a Illustration of the working principle of the MEMS microphone, b cross sectional diagram of the capacitive MEMS microphone.
Mentions: The capacitive-type sensor based on the Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology detects acoustic pressure with a change in its nominal capacitance value [25–29]. Figure 5a shows the working principle of the capacitive MEMS sensor. The center piece which is the diaphragm is a suspended weight (proof mass) that is free to move. This proof mass is electrically isolated from a static fixed structure depicted by the fixed comb in Figure 5b, thus having a nominal capacitance value between them. When the diaphragm is subjected to an acoustic pressure source, it will start to move in harmony with the source thus causing changes in its nominal capacitance value. The capacitive MEMS sensor has the advantage of small size, mass production and better temperature stability. In addition, it is compatible with conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology; hence, when combined with integrated circuit it makes it possible to develop high performance HS sensor system.Figure 5

Bottom Line: Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces.Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically.The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre Singapore, 5 Hospital Drive, Singapore, 169609, Singapore. leng.shuang@nhcs.com.sg.

ABSTRACT
Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus