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Oxidative stress in fungi: its function in signal transduction, interaction with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation.

Breitenbach M, Weber M, Rinnerthaler M, Karl T, Breitenbach-Koller L - Biomolecules (2015)

Bottom Line: In this review article, we want to present an overview of oxidative stress in fungal cells in relation to signal transduction, interaction of fungi with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation.We will discuss external oxidative stress which may occur through the interaction with other microorganisms or plant hosts as well as internally generated oxidative stress, which can for instance originate from NADPH oxidases or "leaky" mitochondria and may be modulated by the peroxiredoxin system or by protein disulfide isomerases thus contributing to redox signaling.Analyzing redox signaling in fungi with the tools of molecular genetics is presently only in its beginning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, University of Salzburg, Salzburg 5020, Austria. Michael.BREITENBACH@sbg.ac.at.

ABSTRACT
In this review article, we want to present an overview of oxidative stress in fungal cells in relation to signal transduction, interaction of fungi with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation. We will discuss external oxidative stress which may occur through the interaction with other microorganisms or plant hosts as well as internally generated oxidative stress, which can for instance originate from NADPH oxidases or "leaky" mitochondria and may be modulated by the peroxiredoxin system or by protein disulfide isomerases thus contributing to redox signaling. Analyzing redox signaling in fungi with the tools of molecular genetics is presently only in its beginning. However, it is already clear that redox signaling in fungal cells often is linked to cell differentiation (like the formation of perithecia), virulence (in plant pathogens), hyphal growth and the successful passage through the stationary phase.

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Phylogenetic relationships among the fungal members of the IMR (integral membrane reductase) protein superfamily (see also text for a discussion).
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biomolecules-05-00318-f004: Phylogenetic relationships among the fungal members of the IMR (integral membrane reductase) protein superfamily (see also text for a discussion).

Mentions: However, the picture of NADPH oxidases as a class of defense enzymes has been greatly changed and enlarged in recent decades and our present view of this class of enzymes now includes catalysis of specialized chemical reactions and also signal transduction. One example is synthesis of the biologically active form of the hormone, thyroxine, by DUOX2 and a thyroidal peroxidase in the thyroid gland in a radical reaction using iodide and H2O2 [60,61]. Signal transduction is another more general and more important new function of NADPH oxidases based on the production of ROS as signaling compounds which can signal cell proliferation but also cell differentiation [13]. The best available evidence for a signaling ROS exists for hydrogen peroxide in human cells as well as fungal cells. Signaling by NADPH oxidases in fungi [62,67] was studied in detail in connection with cell differentiation in Aspergillus [59], Podospora [70], and Neurospora [71]. These examples relate to the formation of fruiting bodies needed for sexual reproduction, spore germination or interaction with a plant host and without exception concern mutations in the classical fungal NADPH oxidases NoxA, NoxB, and NoxC or the regulatory fungal NOX subunit, NoxR, of filamentous fungi (see also the cladogram given in Figure 4). The mutant phenotypes are pronounced, leading, for instance, to female sterile mycelia. However, there is presently no information available on the molecular mechanisms which would explain how these fungal NADPH oxidases or the ROS produced by them are involved in the physiological cell differentiation in fruiting bodies.


Oxidative stress in fungi: its function in signal transduction, interaction with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation.

Breitenbach M, Weber M, Rinnerthaler M, Karl T, Breitenbach-Koller L - Biomolecules (2015)

Phylogenetic relationships among the fungal members of the IMR (integral membrane reductase) protein superfamily (see also text for a discussion).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496675&req=5

biomolecules-05-00318-f004: Phylogenetic relationships among the fungal members of the IMR (integral membrane reductase) protein superfamily (see also text for a discussion).
Mentions: However, the picture of NADPH oxidases as a class of defense enzymes has been greatly changed and enlarged in recent decades and our present view of this class of enzymes now includes catalysis of specialized chemical reactions and also signal transduction. One example is synthesis of the biologically active form of the hormone, thyroxine, by DUOX2 and a thyroidal peroxidase in the thyroid gland in a radical reaction using iodide and H2O2 [60,61]. Signal transduction is another more general and more important new function of NADPH oxidases based on the production of ROS as signaling compounds which can signal cell proliferation but also cell differentiation [13]. The best available evidence for a signaling ROS exists for hydrogen peroxide in human cells as well as fungal cells. Signaling by NADPH oxidases in fungi [62,67] was studied in detail in connection with cell differentiation in Aspergillus [59], Podospora [70], and Neurospora [71]. These examples relate to the formation of fruiting bodies needed for sexual reproduction, spore germination or interaction with a plant host and without exception concern mutations in the classical fungal NADPH oxidases NoxA, NoxB, and NoxC or the regulatory fungal NOX subunit, NoxR, of filamentous fungi (see also the cladogram given in Figure 4). The mutant phenotypes are pronounced, leading, for instance, to female sterile mycelia. However, there is presently no information available on the molecular mechanisms which would explain how these fungal NADPH oxidases or the ROS produced by them are involved in the physiological cell differentiation in fruiting bodies.

Bottom Line: In this review article, we want to present an overview of oxidative stress in fungal cells in relation to signal transduction, interaction of fungi with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation.We will discuss external oxidative stress which may occur through the interaction with other microorganisms or plant hosts as well as internally generated oxidative stress, which can for instance originate from NADPH oxidases or "leaky" mitochondria and may be modulated by the peroxiredoxin system or by protein disulfide isomerases thus contributing to redox signaling.Analyzing redox signaling in fungi with the tools of molecular genetics is presently only in its beginning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, University of Salzburg, Salzburg 5020, Austria. Michael.BREITENBACH@sbg.ac.at.

ABSTRACT
In this review article, we want to present an overview of oxidative stress in fungal cells in relation to signal transduction, interaction of fungi with plant hosts, and lignocellulose degradation. We will discuss external oxidative stress which may occur through the interaction with other microorganisms or plant hosts as well as internally generated oxidative stress, which can for instance originate from NADPH oxidases or "leaky" mitochondria and may be modulated by the peroxiredoxin system or by protein disulfide isomerases thus contributing to redox signaling. Analyzing redox signaling in fungi with the tools of molecular genetics is presently only in its beginning. However, it is already clear that redox signaling in fungal cells often is linked to cell differentiation (like the formation of perithecia), virulence (in plant pathogens), hyphal growth and the successful passage through the stationary phase.

Show MeSH