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Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiles Predict Four-Year Risk of Developing Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Japanese Population.

Yamakado M, Nagao K, Imaizumi A, Tani M, Toda A, Tanaka T, Jinzu H, Miyano H, Yamamoto H, Daimon T, Horimoto K, Ishizaka Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Then, models between PFAA levels and the VFA or Ins120 min values were constructed by multiple linear regression analysis with variable selection.The correlation coefficients of the obtained PFAA models against VFA or Ins120 min were higher than single PFAA level.Our models work well for future risk prediction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Multiphasic Health Testing and Services, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda, Izumicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8643, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is highlighted in its association with visceral obesity and hyperinsulinemia, and future diabetes. Indeed PFAA profiling potentially can evaluate individuals' future risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases, in addition to diabetes. However, few studies have been performed especially in Asian populations, about the optimal combination of PFAAs for evaluating health risks. We quantified PFAA levels in 3,701 Japanese subjects, and determined visceral fat area (VFA) and two-hour post-challenge insulin (Ins120 min) values in 865 and 1,160 subjects, respectively. Then, models between PFAA levels and the VFA or Ins120 min values were constructed by multiple linear regression analysis with variable selection. Finally, a cohort study of 2,984 subjects to examine capabilities of the obtained models for predicting four-year risk of developing new-onset lifestyle-related diseases was conducted. The correlation coefficients of the obtained PFAA models against VFA or Ins120 min were higher than single PFAA level. Our models work well for future risk prediction. Even after adjusting for commonly accepted multiple risk factors, these models can predict future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. PFAA profiles confer independent and differing contributions to increasing the lifestyle-related disease risks in addition to the currently known factors in a general Japanese population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation clustering using PFAA profiles and metabolic variables.Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated, and hierarchical clustering was conducted. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c, FPG: Fasting plasma glucose, Glc120 min: Plasma glucose level 2-h after OGTT, Ins120 min: Serum insulin level 2-h after OGTT, HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, VFA: Visceral fat area by computed tomography, BMI: Body mass index, TG: Triglyceride, GPT: Alanine aminotransferase, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, GOT: Aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GTP: gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, Alb: Albumin, TP: Total protein, T-Bil: Total bilirubin, LDL-CHO: LDL cholesterol, CRP: C-reactive protein, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, GA: Glycoalbumin, Amy: Amylase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, T-CHO: Total cholesterol, 1,5-AG: 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, HDL-CHO: HDL cholesterol.
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f1: Correlation clustering using PFAA profiles and metabolic variables.Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated, and hierarchical clustering was conducted. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c, FPG: Fasting plasma glucose, Glc120 min: Plasma glucose level 2-h after OGTT, Ins120 min: Serum insulin level 2-h after OGTT, HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, VFA: Visceral fat area by computed tomography, BMI: Body mass index, TG: Triglyceride, GPT: Alanine aminotransferase, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, GOT: Aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GTP: gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, Alb: Albumin, TP: Total protein, T-Bil: Total bilirubin, LDL-CHO: LDL cholesterol, CRP: C-reactive protein, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, GA: Glycoalbumin, Amy: Amylase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, T-CHO: Total cholesterol, 1,5-AG: 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, HDL-CHO: HDL cholesterol.

Mentions: We first examined whether PFAA profiles were altered in accordance with their metabolic status in the large Japanese population (Fig. 1). A correlation structure was depicted with an aid of hierarchical clustering, between the PFAA profiles and the metabolic variables that were associated with the lifestyle-related diseases. As easily seen in the figure, five amino acids (isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), valine (Val), tyrosine (Tyr), and Ala) showed strong positive correlations with visceral obesity-, glucose-, and insulin-related variables, and only Gly showed negative correlations with them. Both the blood glucose levels and insulin levels belonged to the same cluster, which also contained obesity-related variables, including BMI, waist circumference, and VFA. This finding was consistent with the fact that both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia were closely associated with visceral obesity. Unexpectedly, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) and glycoalbumin (GA), which are known to reflect short-term impaired blood glucose regulation, were only marginally correlated with the PFAA profiles. The glycemic changes that occurred over the course of several days may have had little effect on the PFAA levels. Also, the whole PFAA concentrations in the category of healthy subjects, patients of DM, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, or hypertension at the beginning of the cohort study can be found as Supplementary Table S1 online.


Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiles Predict Four-Year Risk of Developing Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Dyslipidemia, and Hypertension in Japanese Population.

Yamakado M, Nagao K, Imaizumi A, Tani M, Toda A, Tanaka T, Jinzu H, Miyano H, Yamamoto H, Daimon T, Horimoto K, Ishizaka Y - Sci Rep (2015)

Correlation clustering using PFAA profiles and metabolic variables.Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated, and hierarchical clustering was conducted. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c, FPG: Fasting plasma glucose, Glc120 min: Plasma glucose level 2-h after OGTT, Ins120 min: Serum insulin level 2-h after OGTT, HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, VFA: Visceral fat area by computed tomography, BMI: Body mass index, TG: Triglyceride, GPT: Alanine aminotransferase, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, GOT: Aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GTP: gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, Alb: Albumin, TP: Total protein, T-Bil: Total bilirubin, LDL-CHO: LDL cholesterol, CRP: C-reactive protein, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, GA: Glycoalbumin, Amy: Amylase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, T-CHO: Total cholesterol, 1,5-AG: 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, HDL-CHO: HDL cholesterol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496670&req=5

f1: Correlation clustering using PFAA profiles and metabolic variables.Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated, and hierarchical clustering was conducted. HbA1c: Hemoglobin A1c, FPG: Fasting plasma glucose, Glc120 min: Plasma glucose level 2-h after OGTT, Ins120 min: Serum insulin level 2-h after OGTT, HOMA-IR: Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, VFA: Visceral fat area by computed tomography, BMI: Body mass index, TG: Triglyceride, GPT: Alanine aminotransferase, DBP: Diastolic blood pressure, SBP: Systolic blood pressure, GOT: Aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GTP: gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, Alb: Albumin, TP: Total protein, T-Bil: Total bilirubin, LDL-CHO: LDL cholesterol, CRP: C-reactive protein, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, GA: Glycoalbumin, Amy: Amylase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, T-CHO: Total cholesterol, 1,5-AG: 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, HDL-CHO: HDL cholesterol.
Mentions: We first examined whether PFAA profiles were altered in accordance with their metabolic status in the large Japanese population (Fig. 1). A correlation structure was depicted with an aid of hierarchical clustering, between the PFAA profiles and the metabolic variables that were associated with the lifestyle-related diseases. As easily seen in the figure, five amino acids (isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), valine (Val), tyrosine (Tyr), and Ala) showed strong positive correlations with visceral obesity-, glucose-, and insulin-related variables, and only Gly showed negative correlations with them. Both the blood glucose levels and insulin levels belonged to the same cluster, which also contained obesity-related variables, including BMI, waist circumference, and VFA. This finding was consistent with the fact that both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia were closely associated with visceral obesity. Unexpectedly, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) and glycoalbumin (GA), which are known to reflect short-term impaired blood glucose regulation, were only marginally correlated with the PFAA profiles. The glycemic changes that occurred over the course of several days may have had little effect on the PFAA levels. Also, the whole PFAA concentrations in the category of healthy subjects, patients of DM, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, or hypertension at the beginning of the cohort study can be found as Supplementary Table S1 online.

Bottom Line: Then, models between PFAA levels and the VFA or Ins120 min values were constructed by multiple linear regression analysis with variable selection.The correlation coefficients of the obtained PFAA models against VFA or Ins120 min were higher than single PFAA level.Our models work well for future risk prediction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Multiphasic Health Testing and Services, Mitsui Memorial Hospital, 1 Kanda, Izumicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8643, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is highlighted in its association with visceral obesity and hyperinsulinemia, and future diabetes. Indeed PFAA profiling potentially can evaluate individuals' future risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases, in addition to diabetes. However, few studies have been performed especially in Asian populations, about the optimal combination of PFAAs for evaluating health risks. We quantified PFAA levels in 3,701 Japanese subjects, and determined visceral fat area (VFA) and two-hour post-challenge insulin (Ins120 min) values in 865 and 1,160 subjects, respectively. Then, models between PFAA levels and the VFA or Ins120 min values were constructed by multiple linear regression analysis with variable selection. Finally, a cohort study of 2,984 subjects to examine capabilities of the obtained models for predicting four-year risk of developing new-onset lifestyle-related diseases was conducted. The correlation coefficients of the obtained PFAA models against VFA or Ins120 min were higher than single PFAA level. Our models work well for future risk prediction. Even after adjusting for commonly accepted multiple risk factors, these models can predict future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. PFAA profiles confer independent and differing contributions to increasing the lifestyle-related disease risks in addition to the currently known factors in a general Japanese population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus